Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Chava CrequeEmail author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2088


Depression; Dysthymia; Melancholy; Restlessness


Dysphoria is a broad word applied to a spectrum of conditions from sadness and depression to anxiety and mania. It is described as an unpleasant mood or the absence of positive mood and can encompass feelings and symptoms such as sadness, anxiety, restlessness, irritability, hopeless, and extreme fatigue. Dysphoria is used to explain feelings from sadness of grief to irritability and mania of bipolar disorder. Patients who exhibit dysphoria may perform poorly on neuropsychological tests, especially on measures that require rapid responses.


References and Readings

  1. Gasquoine, P. (1992). Affective state and awareness of sensory and cognitive effects after closed head injury. Neuropsychology, 6(3), 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Voruganti, L., & Awad, A. (2004). Neuroleptic dysphoria: Towards a new synthesis neuroleptic dysphoria. Psychopharmacology, 171(2), 121–132.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Zoellner, L. A., Pruitt, L. D., Farach, F. J., & Jun, J. J. (2014). Understanding heterogeneity in PTSD: Fear, dysphoria, and distress. Depression and Anxiety, 31(2), 97–106.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology and NeuroscienceUniversity of Colorado BoulderBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA