Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

K Scale

  • Richard TempleEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1991


Correction factor; Defensiveness


Validity scale on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and its revisions designed to identify individuals with significant psychopathology, whose profiles appear normal due to under-responding of psychopathology. The scale is also used to provide a correction factor to certain clinical scales to account for defensive responding, although research has been critical of this correction factor. Adolescent profiles are never K-corrected. Extremely low scores sometimes indicate exaggeration or fabrication of symptoms, whereas extremely high scores suggest unwillingness to self-disclose symptoms. In neuropsychological evaluation, extreme defensiveness may bring in to question the validity of other sources of subjective information (e.g., from the clinical interview and other self-report measures). Readers are referred to the MMPI entry for a discussion of limitations of this self-report measure when used with...

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References and Readings

  1. Gass, C. (2006). Use of the MMPI-2 in neuropsychological evaluations. In J. Butcher (Ed.), MMPI-2: A practitioner’s guide (pp. 301–326). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Graham, J. R. (2005). MMPI-2: Assessing personality and psychopathology (pp. 28–32). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., Bigler, E. D., & Tranel, D. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical OperationsCORE Health CareDripping SpringsUSA