Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Mini-Mental State Exam

  • Philip SchatzEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_199




The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) is an interviewer-administered 30-item screening examination to assess cognitive status and to track cognitive impairment or recovery over time. Although the MMSE is typically used to screen for mental impairment in older adults, the test can be administered to individuals who are 18–85 years or older, with some normative data available for children as young as 10 years of age.

The items (or questions) yield a possible total of 30 points and are organized as follows: orientation to time and place (10 points), registration (object memory – 3 points), attention and calculation (5 points), (short-term) recall (3 points), and language (object naming, word repetition, comprehension, reading, writing, and drawing – 9 points). The MMSE is typically administered in 5–10 min, and administration procedures are clearly explained (Folstein et al. 1975).

There is little detail regarding normative procedures in the original publications,...

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References and Readings

  1. Albanese, M. A., & Ward, S. B. (2003). Review of the mini mental state examination. In B. S. Plake & J. C. Impara (Eds.), The fifteenth mental measurements yearbook. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements: Lincoln.Google Scholar
  2. Crum, R. M., Anthony, J. C., Bassett, S. S., & Folstein, M. F. (1993). Population-based norms for the mini-mental state examination by age and educational level. JAMA, 18, 2386–2391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Folstein, M., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state” a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189–198.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Hensel, A., Angermeyer, M. C., & Riedel-Heller, S. G. (2007). Measuring cognitive change in older adults: Reliable change indices for the mini-mental state examination. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 78, 1298–1303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Tombaugh, T. N., & McIntyre, N. J. (1992). The mini-mental state examination: A comprehensive review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40, 922–935.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologySaint Joseph’s UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA