Center for Epidemiological Studies: Depression
The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff 1977) is a 20-item self-report measure that assesses the presence and severity of depressive symptoms over the previous week. The CES-D has been used with adults and adolescents. Individuals completing the scale rate each item on a four-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (rarely or none of the time) to 3 (most or all of the time). Four items require reverse scoring. Administration time is approximately 5 min. Responses are summed to obtain a total score of 0–60, with higher scores indicating a greater frequency of symptoms. Scores of 16 or higher were suggested to identify subjects with depressive illness (Radloff 1977). Work by Pandya et al. (2005) supports the use of this cut-off in those with multiple sclerosis (MS). Earlier work by Zich et al. (1990) suggests that alternate cut-off scores may be more appropriate with medical populations.
In 1971, the National...
References and Readings
- Brantley, P. J., Mehan, J., & Thomas, J. L. (2000). The beck depression inventory (BDI) and the center for epidemiological studies depression scale (CES-D). In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), Handbook of psychological assessment in primary care settings (pp. 391–422). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc..Google Scholar
- Chwastiak, L., Ehde, D. M., Gibbons, L. E., Sullivan, M., Bowen, J. D., & Kraft, G. H. (2002). Depressive symptoms and severity of illness in multiple sclerosis: Epidemiologic study of a large community sample. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(11), 1862–1868.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- McCauley, S. R., Pedroza, C., Brown, S. A., Boake, C., Levin, H. S., Goodman, H. S., et al. (2006). Confirmatory factor structure of the center for epidemiologic studies-depression scale (CES-D) in mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 519–527.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar