Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Center for Epidemiological Studies: Depression

  • Lisa A. BrennerEmail author
  • Molly Penzenik
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1979




The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff 1977) is a 20-item self-report measure that assesses the presence and severity of depressive symptoms over the previous week. The CES-D has been used with adults and adolescents. Individuals completing the scale rate each item on a four-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (rarely or none of the time) to 3 (most or all of the time). Four items require reverse scoring. Administration time is approximately 5 min. Responses are summed to obtain a total score of 0–60, with higher scores indicating a greater frequency of symptoms. Scores of 16 or higher were suggested to identify subjects with depressive illness (Radloff 1977). Work by Pandya et al. (2005) supports the use of this cut-off in those with multiple sclerosis (MS). Earlier work by Zich et al. (1990) suggests that alternate cut-off scores may be more appropriate with medical populations.

Historical Background

In 1971, the National...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG (outside the USA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical CenterDenverUSA
  2. 2.University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical CampusAuroraUSA