Tower of London
Tower of Hanoi; Tower of Toronto
The Tower of London (TOL) is an executive function task utilized primarily to assess planning capacity, although it can also be used to evaluate working memory, rule learning, the ability to inhibit responding, self-monitoring and regulation, problem solving, and establishing and maintaining set. There are a multitude of TOL tasks in existence, but the initial TOL was devised by Tim Shallice (1982) as an improvement upon the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) task (see Historical Background). Shallice employed his TOL to assess planning in patients with frontal lobe lesions.
Shallice’s TOL task consists of two boards, each of which contains three vertical pegs of increasing length and three different colored (red, blue, and green) beads or balls that are placed onto the pegs. The shortest peg only accommodates one bead; the second, two; and the third, three. On the examiner’s board, the beads are arranged on the pegs in a goal position, and on...
References and Reading
- Baron, I. S. (2004). Neuropsychological evaluation of the child. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Brooks, P. H., Sperber, R. J., & McCauley, C. (1984). Learning and cognition in the mentally retarded. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Culbertson, W., & Zillmer, E. A. (2005). Tower of London Drexel University – 2nd edition (TOL-DX 2nd edition). North Tonawanda: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
- Kaller, C. P., Unterrainer, J. M., Kaiser, S., Weisbrod, M., & Aschenbrenner, S. (2012a). Tower of London—Freiburg version. Mödling: Schuhfried.Google Scholar
- Kaller, C. P., Debelak, R., Köstering, L., Egle, J., Rahm, B., Wild, P. S., Blettner, M., Beutel, M. E., & Unterrainer, J. M. (2016). Assessing planning ability across the adult life span: Population-representative and age-adjusted reliability estimates for the tower of London (TOL-F). Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 31(2), 148–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Köstering, L., Schmidt, C. S., Egger, K., Amtage, F., Peter, J., Klöppel, S., Beume, L. A., Hoeren, M., Weiller, C., & Kaller, C. P. (2015). Assessment of planning performance in clinical samples: Reliability and validity of the tower of London task (TOL-F). Neuropsychologia, 75, 646–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kramer, J., Boxer, A., Cahn-Weiner, D., Johnson, J., Quitania, L., Rankin, K., et al. (n.d.). The assessment of executive functioning: A selective review of the literature. In Examiner. Retrieved, January 30, 2010, from http://examiner.ucsf.edu/Related_Literature/literature_search.htm.
- Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., Bigler, E. D., & Tranel, D. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar