Dexedrine; Dextro-amphetamine; d-amphetamine
Amphetamine refers to a group of synthetic chemicals with psychoactive stimulant effects. Amphetamines are similar in molecular structure to the catecholamine neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and dopamine. They compete with the endogenous monoamine (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) transporters to be transported into the nerve. Once inside the presynaptic terminal, amphetamine displaces the monoamines from the cytosolic pool, which reverses the direction of the reuptake transporter and thereby increases synaptic concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters (Heal et al. 2014). There are two forms, dextro-amphetamine (d-amphetamine) and levo-amphetamine (l-amphetamine), of which d-amphetamine is the more active form. Chemical modifications to the basic structure have led to derivatives with even more potent psychoactive properties. For example, addition of a second methyl group to the chemical structure creates...
References and Readings
- Feldman, R. S., Meyer, J. S., & Quenzer, L. F. (1997). Stimulants: Amphetamine and Cocaine. In Principles of neuropsychoparhmacology (pp. 549–568). Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
- Freberg, L. (2014). Discovering behavioral neuroscience (pp. 107–108). Boston: Cenage Learning.Google Scholar
- Meyer, J. S., & Quenzer, L. F. (2005). Psychomotor stimulants: Cocaine and the amphetamines. In Psychopharmacoogy. Drugs, the brain and behavior (pp. 292–300). Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, Inc.Google Scholar