Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Maya BalamaneEmail author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1748




Psychotropic means acting on the mind and usually accompanies the term psychoactive drug or psychopharmaceutical. A psychoactive drug is substance acting primarily on the central nervous system to temporarily alter brain function. As with all medications, psychotropic drugs have potential risks, including physical side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, changes in appetite, sleep disturbance, and changes in weight. Typically, the psychotropic effects involve alterations in mood, perception, consciousness, and behavior. Such effects could impact results of neuropsychological tests, particularly with regard to diminished reports of depressive symptoms secondary to increased feelings of euphoria or alertness caused by psychotropics. Additionally, psychotropic drugs could result in impaired cognitive functioning resulting in negatively skewed neuropsychological test results. Psychoactive drugs can be used for anesthesia, pain control,...

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References and Readings

  1. Crumbley, J., DeFilippis, N., Dsurney, J., & Sacco, A. (2005). The neurometric-quantitative electroencephalogram as a predictor for psychopharmacological treatment: An investigation of clinical utility. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27(6), 769–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Os, J., Rossum, I., Boomsma, M., Vieta, E., Goetz, I., Reed, C., et al. (2007). The social, psychopathological and consumer context of rate of symptom improvement in acute mania. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42(8), 631–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Sneed, J., Keilp, J., Brickman, A., & Roose, S. (2008). The specificity of neuropsychological impairment in predicting antidepressant non-response in the very old depressed. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(3), 319–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Tremmery, S., Buitelaar, J., Steyaert, J., Molenberghs, G., Feron, F., Kalff, A., et al. (2007). The use of health care services and psychotropic medication in a community sample of 9-year-old schoolchildren with ADHD. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 16(5), 327–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maya Balamane
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
    • 2
  1. 1.Mount Sinai Brain Injury Research CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA