Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Maya BalamaneEmail author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1740


Internal Secretion


A hormone is a chemical messenger and is mainly synthesized within the endocrine glands, testis, and/or ovaries but can also be produced by cells having neuroendocrine function (such as the hypothalamic–adrenal pathway). Once hormones are released, they mainly travel through the bloodstream (although they can also have cell–cell communications) and attach to a specific receptor of a target cell. Depending on the receptor, the hormone will activate a certain process (gene expression, metabolic pathway, etc.). Hormones are very powerful and affect almost every function of the body (growth and development, reproduction, mood, metabolism, and so on). They interact with the brain and can produce profound effects on behavior and cognition.


References and Readings

  1. Erlanger, D. M., Kutner, K. C., & Jacobs, A. R. (1999). Hormones and cognition: Current concepts and issues in neuropsychology. Neuropsychology Review, 9(4), 175–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  4. Kiecolt-Glaser, J., Bane, C., Glaser, R., & Malarkey, W. (2003). Love, marriage, and divorce: Newlyweds’ stress hormones foreshadow relationship changes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(1), 176–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Mead, L., & Hampson, E. (1996). Asymmetric effects of ovarian hormones on hemispheric activity: Evidence from dichotic and tachistoscopic tests. Neuropsychology, 10(4), 578–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maya Balamane
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
    • 2
  1. 1.Mount Sinai Brain Injury Research CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA