Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Hormones

  • Maya BalamaneEmail author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1740

Synonyms

Internal Secretion

Definition

A hormone is a chemical messenger and is mainly synthesized within the endocrine glands, testis, and/or ovaries but can also be produced by cells having neuroendocrine function (such as the hypothalamic–adrenal pathway). Once hormones are released, they mainly travel through the bloodstream (although they can also have cell–cell communications) and attach to a specific receptor of a target cell. Depending on the receptor, the hormone will activate a certain process (gene expression, metabolic pathway, etc.). Hormones are very powerful and affect almost every function of the body (growth and development, reproduction, mood, metabolism, and so on). They interact with the brain and can produce profound effects on behavior and cognition.

Cross-References

References and Readings

  1. Erlanger, D. M., Kutner, K. C., & Jacobs, A. R. (1999). Hormones and cognition: Current concepts and issues in neuropsychology. Neuropsychology Review, 9(4), 175–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Forgie, M., & Kolb, B. (2003). Manipulation of gonadal hormones in neonatal rats alters the morphological response of cortical neurons to brain injury in adulthood. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117(2), 257–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Galea, L., Uban, K., Epp, J., Brummelte, S., Barha, C., Wilson, W., et al. (2008). Endocrine regulation of cognition and neuroplasticity: Our pursuit to unveil the complex interaction between hormones, the brain, and behaviour. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale, 62(4), 247–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kiecolt-Glaser, J., Bane, C., Glaser, R., & Malarkey, W. (2003). Love, marriage, and divorce: Newlyweds’ stress hormones foreshadow relationship changes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(1), 176–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Mead, L., & Hampson, E. (1996). Asymmetric effects of ovarian hormones on hemispheric activity: Evidence from dichotic and tachistoscopic tests. Neuropsychology, 10(4), 578–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maya Balamane
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
    • 2
  1. 1.Mount Sinai Brain Injury Research CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA