Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Enzyme

  • Jose A. ReyEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1737

Definition

Enzymes are protein molecules that are necessary to cellular processes and are potential pharmacological targets for the treatment of various diseases. The purpose of an enzyme is to act as a catalyst and lower the activation energy needed to carry out a biochemical reaction, often greatly increasing the rate of a reaction as well. Most enzyme names have the suffix “-ase” attached to the substrate of the reaction or to describe the action performed. Enzymes assist in converting a given substrate into a different product. This process may result in breaking down an existing molecule (catabolism) into more basic components or, through synthesis, the combination and creation of a larger product (anabolism). When the substrate, and other molecules, interacts with the enzyme at its active site, a conformational (or allosteric) change in the enzyme’s shape may occur to influence (induce or inhibit) the activity of the enzyme. Factors potentially affecting enzyme specificity for a...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of PharmacyNova Southeastern UniversityFt. LauderdaleUSA