Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Eduardo LopezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_17


Craniectomy; Trephination


Neurosurgical procedure involving the opening of the skull as a means of decreasing intracranial pressure (ICP) and/or for purposes of removal of a mass lesion.

Current Knowledge

Craniotomy as a treatment for increased ICP from a mass lesion has its foundation early in the history of neurosurgery. Decompressive craniotomy (DC) initially was introduced to lower the intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with inoperable tumors and in managing uncontrolled ICP after traumatic brain injury (Brit and Hamilton 1978). DC has been recommended as an alternative treatment for space occupying acute hemispheric infarction with or without massive medically uncontrolled brain edema (Schwab 1998). A scientific statement addressing the early approach to a patient with a swollen ischemic stroke in a cerebral or cerebellar hemisphere has been produced (Wijdicks et al. 2014). During the acute period following cerebral infarction, neurologic decline is often...

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References and Readings

  1. Aldrich, E. F., Eisenberg, H. M., Saydhari, C., et al. (1992). Diffuse brain swelling in head-injured children. Journal of Neurosurgery, 76(3), 450–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  3. Bullock, R., Chestnut, R., Ghajar, J., et al. (2006). Surgical management of subdural hematoma. Neurosurgery, 58(3), S2-16–S2-24.Google Scholar
  4. Chen, C., Smith, E., Ogilvy, C., & Carter, B. S. (2006). Decompressive craniectomy: Physiological rationale, clinical indications, and surgical considerations. 5, 70–80.Google Scholar
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  7. Wijdicks, E. F., Sheth, K. N., Carter, B. S., et al. (2014). Recommendations for the management of cerebral and cerebellar infarction with selling: A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 45(4), 1222–1238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rehabilitation MedicineNew York Medical College, Metropolitan HospitalNew YorkUSA