Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • John C. Courtney
  • Cristy Akins
  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1672

Generic Name


Brand Name



Antidepressants and tetracyclic

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Enhances norepinephrine and inhibits norepinephrine reuptake pump



Off-Label Use

Anxiety, insomnia, neuropathic pain, and chronic pain

Side Effects


QT prolongation, lowered seizure threshold, seizures, extrapyramidal symptoms, induction of mania, suicidal ideation, orthostatic hypotension, sudden death, and hyperthermia


Cardiac arrhythmia, sedation, dry mouth, blurred vision, weight gain, hypotension, anxiety, restlessness, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, sweating, and rash

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ desk reference (71st ed.) (2017). Montvale: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.epocrates.com
  2. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.medscape.com

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Courtney
    • 1
  • Cristy Akins
    • 2
  • Efrain Antonio Gonzalez
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Socorro Mental HealthPresbyterian Medical ServicesSocorroUSA
  2. 2.Mercy Family CenterMetarieUSA
  3. 3.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  4. 4.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA