Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • John C. Courtney
  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1671

Generic Name


Brand Name




Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Binds to benzodiazepine receptors at the GABA-A ligand-gated channel, thus allowing for neuronal hyperpolarization. Benzodiazepines enhance the inhibitory action of GABA via boosted chloride conductance. This inhibition in the cortex may provide lorazepam’s therapeutic benefits in seizure disorders.


Anxiety, anxiety associated with depression, status epilepticus, and presurgical preanesthetic

Off-Label Use

Insomnia, muscle spasm, alcohol-induced psychosis, headache, panic disorder, acute mania, acute psychosis, and delirium

Side Effects

Sedation, dizziness, unsteadiness, weakness, fatigue, drowsiness, amnesia, confusion, disorientation, depression, suicidal ideation/attempt, vertigo, ataxia, sleep apnea, asthenia, EPS, respiratory depression, tremor, convulsions/seizures, visual disturbances, dysarthria, hypotension, blood dyscrasias, change in libido, impotence, and change in appetite


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References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ desk reference (71st ed.) (2017). Montvale, NJ: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free drug online and PDA software. www.epocrates.com

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Socorro Mental HealthPresbyterian Medical ServicesSocorroUSA
  2. 2.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  3. 3.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA