Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • John C. Courtney
  • Cristy AkinsEmail author
  • Efrain Antonio Gonzalez
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1670

Generic Name


Brand Name

Eskalith, Eskalith CR, Lithobid, Lithostat, lithium carbonate, and lithium citrate


Mood stabilizer

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Unknown and complex acts on second messenger system, modifies sodium transport across cell membranes (nerve and muscle cells), and modifies neurotransmitter metabolism (serotonin and catecholamines)


Manic episodes and maintenance of manic-depressive illness

Off-Label Use

Bipolar depression, major depressive disorder, neutropenia, and headache (vascular)

Side Effects

Leukocytosis, polyuria/polydipsia, dry mouth, hand tremor, confusion, decreased memory, headache, muscle weakness, ECG changes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hyperreflexia, muscle twitch, and vertigo


Lithium toxicity, renal impairment, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, arrhythmia, bradycardia, hypotension, flattening and inversion of T wave, pseudotumor cerebri, and seizures


Ataxia, tremor, polyuria, polydipsia, diarrhea, nausea, weight...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ Desk Reference. (2007). (62nd ed.). Montvale: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.epocrates.com

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Courtney
    • 1
  • Cristy Akins
    • 2
    Email author
  • Efrain Antonio Gonzalez
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Socorro Mental HealthPresbyterian Medical ServicesSocorroUSA
  2. 2.Mercy Family CenterMetarieUSA
  3. 3.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  4. 4.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA