Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • John C. Courtney
  • Cristy Akins
  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1653

Generic Name


Brand Name



Antidepressants, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and fibromyalgia agents

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Increases serotonin and norepinephrine by blocking both serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake pumps


Major depressive disorder, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia

Off Label Use

Generalized anxiety disorder, chronic pain, and stress urinary incontinence

Side Effects

Nausea, dry mouth, headache, somnolence, fatigue, constipation, dizziness, insomnia, diarrhea, and anorexia


Seizures, hypomania, increased suicidal ideation, attempts, and completion


Sedation, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, nausea, appetite disturbance, increased blood pressure, and sweating

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ desk reference (71st ed.) (2017). Montvale: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.epocrates.com
  2. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.medscape.com

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Courtney
    • 1
  • Cristy Akins
    • 2
  • Efrain Antonio Gonzalez
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Socorro Mental HealthPresbyterian Medical ServicesSocorroUSA
  2. 2.Mercy Family CenterMetairieUSA
  3. 3.College of Psychology, Nova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  4. 4.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA