Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1631

Generic Name


Brand Name



ADHD agents

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Inhibits the presynaptic reuptake of norepinephrine and theoretically increases dopamine in the prefrontal cortex via the same mechanism.


Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Off-Label Use

Treatment-resistant depression and anxiety.

Side Effects


Increased cardiac rate, potential hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, rare liver damage, potential for induction of mania, and suicidal ideation.


Sedation in children, decreased appetite, dry mouth, constipation, nausea, vomiting, dysmenorrhea, erectile dysfunction, and impaired libido.

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ Desk Reference (71st ed.). (2017). Montvale: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software: www.epocrates.com.
  2. Free Drug Online and PDA Software: www.medscape.com.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  2. 2.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA