Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Maya BalamaneEmail author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1628


Histamine antagonist; Inverse histamine agonists


Antihistamines have multiple clinical indications including allergic conditions (rhinitis, dermatoses, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, hypersensitivity reactions to drugs, mild transfusion reactions, and urticaria), chronic idiopathic urticaria, motion sickness, vertigo, and insomnia. Antihistamines are most commonly used to treat allergies; H1 receptor inverse agonists typically reduce swelling and vasodilation within the nasal area. H1 receptor antagonists include cetirizine, diphenhydramine also known as Benadryl, desloratadine, doxylamine, ebastine, fexofenadine, loratadine, pheniramine, and promethazine. H2 inverse agonists reduce gastric acid and are used to treat ulcers and reflux. H2 receptor antagonists include cimetidine, famotidine, lafutidine, nizatidine, ranitidine, and roxatidine. H3 and H4receptor antagonists are experimental in nature and are being investigated for...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maya Balamane
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
    • 2
  1. 1.Mount Sinai Brain Injury Research CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA