Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Environmental Dependency

  • David J. LibonEmail author
  • Joel Eppig
  • Christine Nieves
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1621


Imitation behavior; Pull to stimulus; Utilization behavior.

Short Description or Definition

Environmental dependency refers to instances when the visual or visuo-tactile presence of objects “compels” patients to either grasp and/or use the objects.


Environmental dependency is usually best understood as part of greater, superordinate frontal lobe syndrome.


The incidence and prevalence of environmental dependency syndrome is unknown.

Natural History, Prognostic Factors, and Outcomes

Environmental dependency syndrome or utilization behavior has not been extensively studied. Therefore, there is little information regarding natural history, prognostic factors, and outcomes.

Neuropsychology and Psychology of Environmental Dependency Syndrome

As noted above, environmental dependency refers to instances when the mere visual or visuo-tactile presence of objects “compels” patients to either grasp the object and/or use it. When patients with environmental...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Geriatrics, Gerontology, and PsychologyRowan University, New Jersey Institute for Successful Aging, School of Osteopathic MedicineStratfordUSA
  2. 2.Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical PsychologyUniversity of California, San Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA