Gilles de la Tourette syndrome; Tics
Short Description and Categorization
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset movement disorder characterized by involuntary motor and vocal tics that may wax and wane over time. It was first reported in 1885 by Gilles de la Tourette and Jean-Martin Charcot. The pathophysiological underpinning for the symptoms of TS is commonly identified as dysfunction in basal ganglia mediated fronto-subcortical circuits (Kurlan 1994).
TS occurs in approximately 1% of the population (Hunter 2007; Robertson 2008). Common motor tics include eye blinking, head jerking, and facial grimaces. Throat clearing, sniffing, and blowing are common vocal tics. Coprolalia, a vocal tic that is characterized by use of obscene language, is present in less than 15% of individuals with TS. TS occurs more often in males than females (average male/female ratio 4:1) and has been observed across ethnic and racial groups, but is thought to occur more often in...
References and Reading
- Harrison, J. N., Schneider, B., & Walkup, J. T. (2007). Medical management of Tourette syndrome and co-occurring conditions. In D. W. Woods, J. C. Piacentini, & J. T. Walkup (Eds.), Treating Tourette syndrome and tic disorders (pp. 113–153). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hunter, S. J. (2007). Pediatric movement disorders. In S. J. Hunter & J. Donders (Eds.), Pediatric neuropsychological intervention (pp. 314–337). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Leckman, J. F., Riddle, M. A., Hardin, M. T., Ort, S. I., Swartz, K. L., Stevenson, J., & Cohen, D. J. (1989). The Yale global tic severity scale: Initial testing of a clinician-rated scale of tic severity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 566–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Peterson, A. L. (2007). Psychosocial management of tics and intentional repetitive behaviors associated with Tourette syndrome. In D. W. Woods, J. C. Piacentini, & J. T. Walkup (Eds.), Treating Tourette syndrome and tic disorders (pp. 154–184). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Woods, D. W., Piacentini, J. C., & Walkup, J. T. (2007). Treating Tourette syndrome and tic disorders. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar