Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Prematurity and Low Birth Weight

  • Glen P. AylwardEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1589


Prematurity reflects biologic immaturity for extrauterine life and is a major influence on mortality and morbidity. Birth weight traditionally has been a proxy for prematurity; infants were grouped by birth weight because of imprecise obstetric estimation of gestational age and questionable postnatal assessments. Fetal ultrasound has improved the preciseness of gestational age estimation. Infants born ≤2500 g (5.5 lbs) are low birth weight (LBW), those ≤1500 (3.3 lbs) are very low birth weight (VLBW), and ≤1000 g (2.2 lbs) are extremely low birth weight (ELBW). Extremely premature infants are ≤28 weeks, very premature infants are <32 weeks, moderately premature 32–33 weeks, and infants born at 34–36 weeks are considered late preterm. Term is ≥37 weeks. The overall rate of prematurity is 12–13% with most being in the late preterm group. Neonates with low birth weight may be: (1) premature with average for gestational age (AGA) birth weights, (2) less premature with small for...

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References and Readings

  1. Aylward, G. P. (2002). Cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes: More than IQ scores. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 8, 234–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aylward, G. P. (2005). Neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants born prematurely. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 26, 427–440. Reprinted as a classic article (2014), Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 35, 394–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aylward, G. P. (2014). Update on neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants born prematurely. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 35, 392–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SIU School of Medicine- Developmental-Behavioral PediatricsSpringfieldUSA