Dyscalculia; Dysgraphia; Dyslexia; Dysphasia; Learning disorders
Short Description or Definition
The definition of learning disability has changed over time, but all definitions focus on the idea of academic difficulties that are not expected. According to the DSM-V, a diagnosis of learning disability is assigned when a school-aged child exhibits persistent difficulties in learning and using academic skills, performing below same-aged peers after participating in appropriate efforts to remediate these problems. The child’s learning difficulties have a clear negative impact on their academic or occupational achievement or other daily living skills, and the learning difficulties cannot be completey expained by of other possible causes (primary sensory deficit, intellectual disability/other neurologic or mental condition, stressors, poor proficiency in the language of instruction, or poor academic instruction) (APA 2013).
Areas of learning difficulty include...
References and Readings
- Barnes, M. A., Fuchs, L. S., & Ewing-Cobbs, L. (2009). Math disabilities. In K. O. Yeates, M. D. Ris, H. G. Taylor, & B. F. Pennington (Eds.), Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 297–323). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2007). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Naglieri, J. A., Conway, C., & Goldstein, S. (2009). Using the planning, attention, simultaneous, successive (PASS) theory within a neuropsychological context. In C. R. Reynolds & E. Fletcher-Janzen (Eds.), Handbook of clinical child neuropsychology (3rd ed., pp. 783–800). New York: Springer Science+Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the national reading panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH publication no. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Pennington, B. F. (2009). Diagnosing learning disorders: A neuropsychological framework (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Peterson, R. L., & Pennington, B. F. (2009). Reading disability. In K. O. Yeates, M. D. Ris, H. G. Taylor, & B. F. Pennington (Eds.), Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 324–362). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Office of Special Education Programs (2016). 38th Annual report to congress on the implementation of the individuals with disabilities education act, 2016. Washington, DC.Google Scholar