Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Sally E. ShaywitzEmail author
  • Bennett A. Shaywitz
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1543


Developmental dyslexia; Learning disorders; Specific reading disability

Short Description or Definition

Dyslexia is defined as an unexpected difficulty in accuracy or fluency of reading for an individual’s chronological age, intelligence, level of education, or professional status. Dyslexia is, at its core, a problem with phonological processing, that is, getting to the elemental sounds of spoken language, affecting both spoken and written language (Shaywitz 1996, 2003). Recent evidence provides empiric support for defining dyslexia as an unexpected difficulty in reading (Ferrer et al. 2010). Furthermore, longitudinal data indicate that in typical readers, intelligence and reading track together are dynamically linked. In contrast, in dyslexic readers, intelligence and reading are quite separate and are not dynamically linked. Based on dynamic models, the uncoupling of reading and cognition observed demonstrate that in the special case of dyslexia, a child or adult can be...
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA