Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Sean CunninghamEmail author
  • Zheng Zhou
  • Candace Hughes
  • Jacqueline Estrada
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1464


Cognitive awareness; Meta-knowing; Thinking-about-thinking

Short Description or Definition

Metacognition refers to awareness and knowledge of one’s own thoughts and cognitive processes. Metacognition refers also to the ability to monitor, regulate, and control thoughts.


Memory process, Neuropsychological process, Metamemory.

Natural History, Prognostic Factors, Outcomes

Historical Background

Metacognition developed out of research from developmental and cognitive psychology on awareness and monitoring of memory, referred to as metamemory (Flavell 1971, 1979). The accuracy of judgments that people make about their memory is what Hart referred to as “feelings of knowing” (Hart 1965, 1967). Developmental psychologists, such as Flavell, have been concerned with discovering if the emerging conscious understanding of the processes of memory and cognition relates to memory improvement in children. From these early studies, interest in metamemory spreads to other areas...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sean Cunningham
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zheng Zhou
    • 2
  • Candace Hughes
    • 3
  • Jacqueline Estrada
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologySt. John’s UniversityQueensUSA
  3. 3.School of PsychologyThe Chicago School of Professional PsychologyChicagoUSA