Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Design Fluency Test

  • Ronald RuffEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1426

Synonyms

DFT

Historical Background

Dr. Brenda Milner is one of the most prominent pioneers for advancing the discipline in neuropsychology. In particular, her seminal research established the neuropsychological assessment of frontal lobe functioning. In collaboration with Dr. Jones-Gotman, Dr. Milner designed the design fluency test (DFT) measure analogous to the Thurston verbal fluency test. Their seminal study (Jones-Gotman and Milner 1977) documented prefrontal lobe involvement in both verbal and design fluency. Initially, the DFT was introduced as an experimental measure, and over the years, a number of neuropsychologists have contributed toward establishing the DFT as a psychometric tool.

Description

In the first part of the DFT, the participant is asked to “invent drawings” that are neither scribbles nor nameable objects or forms (e.g., geometrical shapes). During 5 min, as “many different” designs as possible are to be drawn on a blank piece of paper. During the second part, the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Boone, K. B., Miller, B. L., Lee, A., Berman, N., Sherman, D., & Stuss, D. T. (1999). Neuropsychological patterns in right versus left frontotemporal dementia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 5, 612–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carter, S. L., Shore, D., Harnadek, M. S., & Kubu, C. S. (1998). Normative data and interrater reliability of the Design Fluency Test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 12, 531–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Demankis, G. J., & Harrison, D. W. (1997). Relationships between verbal and nonverbal fluency measures: Implications for assessment of executive functioning. Psychological Reports, 81, 443–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Elfgren, C. I., & Risberg, J. (1998). Lateralized frontal blood flow increases during fluency tasks: Influence of cognitive strategy. Neuropsychologia, 36, 505–512.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Harter, S. L., Hart, C. C., & Harter, G. W. (1999). Expanded scoring criteria for the Design Fluency Test: Reliability and validity in neuropsychological and college samples. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 14, 419–432.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Jones-Gotman, M. (1991). Localization of lesions by neuropsychological testing. Epilepsia, 32, S41–S52.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Jones-Gotman, M., & Milner, B. (1977). Design fluency: The invention of nonsense drawings after focal cortical lesions. Neuropsychologia, 15, 653–674.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Levin, H. S., Culhane, K. A., Hartmann, J., Harword, H., Ringholtz, G., Ewing-Cobbs, L., & Fletcher, J. M. (1991). Developmental changes in performance on tests of purported frontal lobe functioning. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7, 377–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ross, T. P., Axelrod, B. N., Hanks, R. A., Kotasek, R. S., & Whitman, R. D. (1996). The interrater and test-retest reliability of the Design Fluency and Ruff Figural Fluency Tests. Paper presented to the 24th meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society, Chicago.Google Scholar
  10. Strauss, E., Sherman, E., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Varney, N. R., Roberts, R. J., Struchen, M. A., Hanson, T. V., Franzen, K. M., & Connell, S. K. (1996). Design fluency among normals and patients with closed head injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 345–353.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Woodward, J. L., Axelrod, B. N., & Henry, R. R. (1992). Interrater reliability of scoring parameters for the Design Fluency Test. Neuropsychology, 6, 173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.San Francisco Clinical Neurosciences, University of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA