Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Response Bias

  • Molly E. ZimmermanEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1243


Incomplete effort; Malingering; Suboptimal effort


A common assumption of neuropsychological assessment is that an individual being tested is fully cooperative and motivated to perform to their highest capacity. In certain circumstances, however, an individual may provide a response, either deliberately or unconsciously, that is not an accurate reflection of their true neuropsychological abilities. Such invalid performance is frequently characterized by the terms response bias, suboptimal performance, incomplete effort, or malingering (Lezak et al. 2012; Strauss et al. 2006). In most instances, measures of cognitive performance would involve only negative response bias. However, because a neuropsychological evaluation also includes an assessment of emotional functioning, positive response bias, or an attempt to deny difficulties or psychological symptoms that present an inaccurately positive image, must also be considered.

Current Knowledge

Deliberate causes of...

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References and Readings

  1. Hom, J., & Denney, R. L. (2003). Detection of response bias in forensic neuropsychology. Philadelphia: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  2. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., Bigler, E. D., & Tranel, D. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyFordham UniversityBronxUSA