Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Late Effects of Radiation Therapy

  • Carol L. ArmstrongEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_121

Definition

Radiation therapy is considered a necessary treatment for many types of tumor and is frequently used in the CNS for the treatment of primary brain tumors, arteriovenous malformations, small-cell lung cancer, high-risk leukemia, brain metastases, and other neoplasms. However, there are severe iatrogenic late effects of radiotherapy (XRT), which are very significant when they occur in the context of either partial brain fields or whole brain field. Late effects are defined as those occurring after the complete dose of XRT has been administered. XRT is used as an adjunct to surgical resection of the mass, which provides the best cure or prevention of recurrence. The curative effects are not always the goal, and it is also used as prophylaxis, and as palliation, that is, to prolong life expectancy.

Current Knowledge

Neurological effects

The late effects of XRT include risks of leukoencephalopathy, radiation necrosis (which is a rare but progressive mass lesion), and functional...
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References and Readings

  1. Armstrong, C., Gyato, K., Awadalla, A., Lustig, R., & Tochner, Z. (2004). A critical review of the clinical effects of therapeutic irradiation damage to the brain: The roots of controversy. Neuropsychology Review, 14(1), 65–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. MacDonald, S. M., Trofimov, A., Safai, S., Adams, J., Fullerton, B., Ebb, D., et al. (2011). Proton radiotherapy for pediatric central nervous system germ cell tumors: Early clinical outcomes. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics, 79(1), 121–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Vigliani, M.-C., Duyckaerts, C., & Delattre, J.-Y. (1997). Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in adults. In C. J. Vecht (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology: Vol. 23(67), neuro-oncology (pp. 371–388). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA