Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Individual Comparison Standards

  • Sandra BanksEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1202


Intra-individual comparisons


The concept of individual comparison standards refers to the assessment of change over time of a function or trait that is normally distributed in the population.

Current Knowledge

Individual comparison standards are otherwise described as intraindividual comparisons that are assessed at different points in time. Developmentally, individual comparison standards designate different developmental achievements, such as successive approximations of successful milestone attainment. In terms of decline in abilities, these standards may demonstrate increasing deficits over time, such as memory loss as seen in Alzheimer’s Dementia. Clinicians can benefit from using an individual’s rate of change as a prediction tool, such as by establishing a rate of improvement following a traumatic brain injury to predict a time period after which the patient may be able to resume work.

References and Readings

  1. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., Bigler, E. D., & Tranel, D. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryAllegheny General HospitalPittsburghUSA