Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Contingency Table

  • Christian SchutteEmail author
  • Bradley N. Axelrod
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1183


2 × 2 table


A contingency table generally is a representation of categorical data in a tabular format, such as a 2 × 2 table, though the table can have three or more variables. There are row variables on the horizontal axis and column variables on the vertical axis. It represents mutually exclusive variables. Good examples of contingency tables are hit rate, sensitivity, and specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive power. In the case of hit rates to assess the number of correct classification decisions that result from the use of a particular test or measure, one would enter the number of true positives, true negatives, false positives, and true negatives into a contingency table like the one below.

Cond. +

Cond. −


Test +

True + (TP)

False + (FP)

Total + decisions


False − (FN)

True − (TN)

Total − decisions


Base rate

Cond. Absent

Total of all decisions

Cond. Condition

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Henry Ford AllegianceJacksonUSA
  2. 2.John D. Dingell VA Medical CenterPsychology Section (11MHPS)DetroitUSA