Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Analysis of Variance

  • Matthew J. L. PageEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1172


ANOVA, F-test


Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a statistical test that identifies whether two or more group means are statistically different. ANOVA evaluates the null hypothesis that the means of each group are equal, and, by implication, that each group represents the same population. The alternative hypothesis is that at least one pair of group means is different, suggesting that these groups reflect different populations and that the independent variable (IV) has a significant effect on the dependent variable (DV). ANOVA uses a statistic referred to as F, which is defined as the ratio between the between-group (explained) variance and the within-group (unexplained) variance. A one-way ANOVA analyzes the difference between the means of multiple levels of one independent variable. A factorial ANOVA incorporates multiple independent variables (factors). For example, in a two-way ANOVA, the main effect of both IVs is examined. The interaction effect is also...

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Further Reading

  1. Gueorguieva, R., & Krystal, J. H. (2004). Move over ANOVA: Progress in analyzing repeated-measures data and its reflection in papers published in the Archives of General Psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 310–317.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.3.310.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Iverson, G. R., & Norpoth, H. (1987). Analysis of variance. Newbury Park: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Watson, P. (2009). Review of analysis of variance and covariance: How to choose and construct models for the life sciences. Psychological Medicine, 39, 695–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Allegheny General HospitalPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Psychology, Allegheny Health NetworkPittsburghUSA