The act of accessing, regaining, or withdrawing information from memory.
Inability to retrieve information from memory is often due to poor storage, inaccurate perception, or limited rehearsal (Eysenck 1982). Retrieval failure may also be due to failure to process the information initially because of sensory or attentional deficits (Cutler and Grams 1988). Usually, however, the problem is that the person did not form the appropriate memory cue necessary to retrieve the information later.
Memory cues determine our ability to access and retrieve information that is available in memory. The ability to form effective memory cues is perhaps the most important aspect of retrieval (Tulving 1983). Recalling memory cues is much the same process as trying to recall the name of a file stored on a computer. Without knowing the file name, the person cannot recall the file. Remembering file names requires conscious rehearsal of the cues....
- Goldstein, G., McCue, M., Turner, S., Spanier, E., Malec, E., & Shelly, C. (1988). An efficacy study of memory training for patients with closed-head injury. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 2, 252–259.Google Scholar
- Harrell, M., Parente, R., Bellingrath, E. G., & Lisicia, K. A., (1992). Cognitive rehabilitation of memory: A practical guide, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Aspen Publishers.Google Scholar
- Herrmann, D. J. (1990). Super memory. Emmaus: Rodale.Google Scholar
- Hertel, P. (1992). Emotion, mood, and memory. New York: Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory.Google Scholar
- Higbee, K. L. (1988). Your memory (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Hunt, R. R., & Ellis, H. C. (2003). Fundamentals of cognitive psychology (5th ed.). Dubuque: Brown.Google Scholar
- Kertesz, A. (1979). Aphasia and associated disorders: Taxonomy, localization, and recovery. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
- Morris, P. E. (1984). The cognitive psychology of self-reports. In J. Harris & P. Morris (Eds.), Everyday memory, actions, and absentmindedness (pp. 153–172). London: Academic.Google Scholar
- Oren, S., Willerton, C., & Small, J. (2014). Effects of spaced retrieval training on semantic memory in Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57(1), 247–270. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0352).CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Parente, F. J., & Anderson-Parenté, J. K. (1983). Techniques for improving cognitive rehabilitation: Teaching organization and encoding skills. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 1(4), 20–22.Google Scholar
- Parente, R., & Herrmann, D. (2010). Retraining cognition: Techniques and applications, Austin Texas: ProEd Publishers.Google Scholar
- Payne, D. (1992). Memory improvement and practice. In D. Herrmann, H. Weingartner, A. Searleman, & C. McEvoy (Eds.), Memory improvement: Implications for memory theory. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Sarno, M. T. (1981). Recovery and rehabilitation in aphasia. In M. T. Sarno (Ed.), Acquired aphasia. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
- Tulving, E. (1983). Elements of episodic memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Yesavage, J. A., Rose, T. L., & Spiegel, D. (1982). Relaxation training and memory improvement in elderly normals: Correlations of anxiety ratings and recall improvement. Experimental Aging Research, 4, 123–137.Google Scholar