Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Procedural Memory

  • Miriam ZichlinEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1143

Synonyms

Implicit memory; Nondeclarative memory; Procedural knowledge

Definition

Procedural memory describes the unconscious memory of learned tasks. Examples include riding a bike and performing difficult athletic moves. As a subset of implicit memory, it is contrasted with memory of facts and events, called declarative memory, a subset of explicit memory. Procedural memory often requires longer periods of learning compared to declarative memory and is usually acquired through repetitive performance. Different types of procedural memories are sometimes separately referred to as motor, perceptual, or cognitive (Mochizuki-Kawai 2008). Most commonly, procedural memory is measured through a task that employs more than one of these types such as Pursuit Rotor Task or Star Mirror Task (Van Gorp et al. 1999).

Historical Background

Procedural memory processing occurs without any conscious acknowledgment and has been studied in a variety of amnesic patients and aging disorders. In most of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Beaunieux, H., Hubert, V., Witkowski, T., Pitel, A. L., Rossi, S., Danion, J. M., et al. (2006). Which processes are involved in cognitive procedural learning? Memory (Hove, England), 14(5), 521–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Churchill, J. D., Stanis, J. J., Press, C., Kushelev, M., & Greenough, W. T. (2003). Is procedural memory relatively spared from age effects? Neurobiology of Aging, 24(6), 883–892.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Corkin, S. (1968). Acquisition of motor skill after bilateral medial temporal-lobe excision. Neuropsychologia, 6, 255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kawai, H., Kawamura, M., Mochizuki, S., Yamanaka, K., Arakaki, H., Tanaka, K., et al. (2002). Longitudinal study of procedural memory in patients with Alzheimer-type dementia. Brain and Nerve [Nō To Shinkei], 54(4), 307–311.Google Scholar
  5. Mochizuki-Kawai, H. (2008). Neural basis of procedural memory. Brain and Nerve [Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo], 60(7), 825–832.Google Scholar
  6. Rueda-Orozco, P. E., Montes-Rodriguez, C. J., Soria-Gomez, E., Méndez-Díaz, M., & Prospéro-García, O. (2008). Impairment of endocannabinoids activity in the dorsolateral striatum delays extinction of behavior in a procedural memory task in rats. Neuropharmacology, 55(1), 55–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Swinnen, S. P., Puttemans, V., & Lamote, S. (2005). Procedural memory in Korsakoff’s disease under different movement feedback conditions. Behavioural Brain Research, 159(1), 127–133.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Van Gorp, W. G., Altshuler, L., Theberge, D. C., & Mintz, J. (1999). Declarative and procedural memory in bipolar disorder. Biological Psychology, 46(4), 525–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Walker, M. P. (2005). A refined model of sleep and the time course of memory formation. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(1), 51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Ward, H., Shum, D., Wallace, G., & Boon, J. (2002). Pediatric traumatic brain injury and procedural memory. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24(4), 458–470.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Yamadori, A., Yoshida, T., Mori, E., & Yamashita, H. (1996). Neurological basis of skill learning. Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research, 5(1–2), 49–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health Economics and Outcomes ResearchAnalysis Group, Inc.BostonUSA