Confabulation; False alarm; False memory
An intrusion error occurs when a person reports information that was not among a set of original materials, whether it is a list of words, a set of visual patterns, a text passage, or a sequence of autobiographical events. For example, if a person presented with the list car, apple, page reports car, apple, and lamp, the last word represents an intrusion.
The example illustrates the fact that intrusion errors frequently occur in tandem with other error types, e.g., omission errors. In the recognition paradigm, intrusion errors are known as false positives or false alarms. In serial and free recall, intrusion errors have been attributed to interference from other lists presented within the same experimental session or from extra-experimental sources.
The false memories observed in the false memory paradigm represent a type of intrusion error. In this paradigm, participants are presented with a list of...
References and Readings
- Emilien, G., Durlach, C., Minaker, K., Winblad, B., Gauthier, S., & Maloteaux, J.-M. (2003). Alzheimer disease: Neuropsychology and pharmacology. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Lezak, M. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Schacter, D. (1995). Memory distortion: How minds, brains, and societies reconstruct the past. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Schacter, D. (1996). Searching for memory: The brain, the mind, and the past. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar