Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Benton Visual Retention Test

  • Carlye B. G. MannaEmail author
  • Carole M. Filangieri
  • Joan C. Borod
  • Karin Alterescu
  • H. Allison Bender
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1110


Benton test; BVRT


The Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) is a widely used test of visual memory, visual perception, and/or visual construction. Now in its fifth edition (Sivan 1992), the test consists of three equivalent forms (Forms C, D, and E), each composed of ten items of visual stimuli. Most items include three geometric forms presented along a horizontal plane, making the test particularly sensitive to visual neglect (Sivan 1992).

The following description of the BVRT was adapted from Strauss et al. (2006). The test includes four alternative methods of administration (A, B, C, and D) that assess different aspects of functioning. The most common administration (A) assesses immediate recall of a visual display. After presenting a stimulus card for 10 s, the card is removed, and the examinee is asked to draw the design from memory. Administration B follows the same procedure as A, but with a 5-s exposure interval. Administration C allows the examiner to...

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Further Reading

  1. Amieva, H., Gaestel, Y., & Dartigues, J. (2006). The multiple-choice formats (forms F and G) of the Benton visual retention test as a tool to detect age-related memory changes in population-based studies and clinical settings. Nature Protocols, 1, 1936–1938.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Arena, R., & Gainotti, G. (1978). Constructional apraxia and visuoperceptive disabilities in relation to laterality of lesions. Cortex, 14, 463–473.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Benton, A. L. (1945). A visual retention test for clinical use. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 54, 212–216.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Benton, A. L. (1965). Manuel pour l’application du test de rétention visuelle (1965). Paris: Les Editions du Centre de Psychologie Applique.Google Scholar
  5. Benton, A. L. (1974). Revised visual retention test: Clinical and experimental applications (4th ed.). New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  6. Dawson, J. D., Anderson, S. W., Uc, E. Y., Dastrup, E., & Rizzo, M. (2009). Predictors of driving safety in early Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 72, 521–527.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dimitrovsky, L., Spector, H., Levy-Shiff, R., & Vakil, E. (1998). Interpretation of facial expressions of affect in children with learning disabilities with verbal or nonverbal deficits. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 286–292.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Egan, G. J., Hasenkamp, W., Wilcox, L., Green, A., Hsu, N., Boshoven, W., Lewison, B., Keyes, M. D., & Duncan, E. (2011). Declarative memory and WCST-64 performance in subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Psychiatry Research, 188, 191–196.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Kawas, C. H., Corrada, M. M., Brookmeyer, R., Morrison, A., Resnick, S. M., Zonderman, A. B., & Arenberg, D. (2003). Visual memory predicts Alzheimer’s disease more than a decade before diagnosis. Neurology, 60, 1089–1093.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Le Carret, N., Rainville, C., Lechevailler, N., Lafont, S., Letenneur, L., & Fabrigoule, C. (2003). Influence of education on the Benton visual retention test performance as mediated by a strategic search component. Brain and Cognition, 53, 408–411.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Mitrushina, M. N., Boone, K. B., Razani, J., & D’Elia, L. F. (2005). Handbook of normative data for neuropsychological assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Obayashi, S., Matsushima, E., Ando, H., Ando, K., & Kojima, T. (2003). Exploratory eye movements during the Benton visual retention test: Characteristics of visual behavior in schizophrenia. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 57, 409–415.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Risser, M. G., & Bowers, T. G. (1993). Cognitive and neuropsychological characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children receiving stimulant medications. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77, 1023–1031.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Rosselli, M., Ardila, A., Bateman, J. R., & Guzman, M. (2001). Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 355–373.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Sivan, A. B. (1992). Benton visual retention test (5th ed.). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  16. Sivan, A. B., & Spreen, O. (1996). Der Benton-Test (7th ed.). Bern: Verlag Hans Huber.Google Scholar
  17. Snow, J. H. (1998). Clinical use of the Benton visual retention test for children and adolescents with learning disabilities. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 13, 629–636.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Suhr, J., Tranel, D., Wefel, J., & Barrash, J. (1997). Memory performance after head injury: Contributions of malingering, litigation status, psychological factors, and medication use. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 19, 500–514.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Vakil, E., Blachstein, H., Sheleff, P., & Grossman, S. (1989). BVRT-scoring system and time delay in the differentiation of lateralized hemispheric damage. International Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 125–128.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlye B. G. Manna
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carole M. Filangieri
    • 2
  • Joan C. Borod
    • 3
    • 4
  • Karin Alterescu
    • 1
  • H. Allison Bender
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyQueens College of the City University of New York (CUNY)FlushingUSA
  2. 2.Department of Behavioral HealthNYU Winthrop HospitalMineolaUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyQueens College and The Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY)FlushingUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA