Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Benign Senescent Forgetfulness

  • Richard F. Kaplan
  • Joshua JohnsonEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1109


Age-associated memory impairment (AAMI); Late-life forgetfulness


The term “benign senescent forgetting” was coined by V.A. Kral (see Kral 1962) to describe an age-related memory decline that is distinct from memory impairment due to known neurological damage or disease.

Current Knowledge

Changes in cognitive functioning are prevalent in aging populations. It has become clear that there is most likely a continuum between normal and abnormal mental function in those individuals who will ultimately develop dementia. Recent studies focusing on the characterization of the earliest stages of cognitive impairment have identified an intermediate period between the cognitive changes of normal aging and dementia (see Petersen et al. 2001). This transitional zone has been described using a variety of terms, including benign senescent forgetfulness (BSF), age-associated memory impairment (AAMI), age-associated cognitive decline (ACCD), cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND),...

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References and Readings

  1. Kral, V. A. (1962). Senescent forgetfulness: Benign and malignant. Journal of the Canadian Medical Association, 86, 257–260.Google Scholar
  2. Larrabee, G. J., & Crook, T. H. (1994). Estimated prevalence of age-associated memory impairment derived from standardized tests of memory function. International Psychgeriatrics, 6, 95–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Petersen, R. C., Stevens, J. C., Ganguli, M., Tangalos, E. G., Cummings, J. L., & DeKosky, S. T. (2001). Practice parameter: Early detection of dementia: Mild cognitive impairment (an evidence-based review) report of the quality standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of neurology. Neurology, 56, 1133–1142.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Smith, G., & Rush, B. K. (2006). Normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. In D. K. Attix & K. A. Welch-Bohmer (Eds.), Geriatric neuropsychology assessment and intervention (pp. 27–56). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry (MC-2103)UConn Health CenterFarmingtonUSA