Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Ependymoma

  • Mi-Yeoung JoEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_107

Definition

Ependymomas are tumors that arise from the ependymal cells that line the ventricular system in the brain or spinal cord. There are four main types, classified according to tumor grade: myxopapillary ependymomas and subependymomas (WHO grade I), ependymomas (WHO grade II), and anaplastic ependymomas (WHO grade III). Ependymomas are one of the most common types of tumors seen in children, especially those aged 3 years and younger. In children, ependymomas are usually located intracranially, primarily in the posterior fossa, while in adults, they are usually located spinally. Ependymomas are typically slow growing, and the main symptoms are due primarily to raised intracranial pressure. A shunt may be necessary. Depending on the location, symptoms can include nausea, headaches, vomiting, papilledema, paresthesias, ataxia, spinal pain, and changes in mood and personality. Supratentorial ependymomas are often accompanied by hemiparesis, sensory disturbances, aphasia, and other...
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References and Readings

  1. Gilbert, M. R., Ruda, R., & Soffietti, R. (2010). Ependymomas in adults. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 10(3), 240–247.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Kilday, J. P., Rahman, R., Dyer, S., Ridley, L., Lowe, J., Coyle, B., & Grundy, R. (2009). Pediatric ependymoma: Biological perspectives. Molecular Cancer Research, 7(6), 765–786.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Oh, M. C., Kim, J. M., Kaur, G., Safaee, M., Sun, M. Z., Singh, A., Aranda, D., Molinaro, A. M., & Parsa, A. T. (2013). Prognosis by tumor location in adults with spinal ependymomas. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, 18(3), 226–235.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sherman OaksUSA