Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Christine J. MihailaEmail author
  • Nuri Erkut Kucukboyaci
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1048


An animal model for complex partial seizures in which repeated mild and short electrical stimulation of the brain generates seizures of increasing behavioral involvement and neural excitability. The models’ founder, Graham Goddard, noted that limbic structures, especially the hippocampus and the amygdala, were particularly susceptible to kindling over the course of stimulation delivered every 12–24 h for weeks. This model, named the kindling model for epileptogenesis, formed the basis of the animals used in epilepsy research until 1990s, when alternate models (i.e., post status epilepticus) gained popularity. Behaviorally, the development of the seizure begins with a limited number of neural circuits involved, but additional neural circuits are increasingly engaged and excitable until the seizure advances to convulsions. The increasing duration of the seizures indicates that the brain’s ability to resist seizure activity becomes weakened, and the threshold for the incitement...

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References and Readings

  1. Abel, M. S., & McCandless, D. W. (1992). The kindling model of epilepsy. In R. N. Adams, G. B. Baker, J. M. Baker, A. N. Bateson, D. P. J. Boisvert, A. A. Boulton, et al. (Eds.), Neuromethods: Animal models of neurological disease (pp. 153–155). Totowa: Humana Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertram, E. (2007). The relevance of kindling for human epilepsy. Epilepsia, 48(2), 65–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Goddard, G. V. (1967). Development of epileptic seizures through brain stimulation at low intensity. Nature, 214, 1020–1021.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Gorter, J. A., van Vliet, E. A., & Lopes da Silva, F. H. (2016). Which insights have we gained from the kindling and post-status epilepticus models? Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 260, 96–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.03.025. Epub 2015 Apr 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 25842270.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine J. Mihaila
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nuri Erkut Kucukboyaci
    • 2
  1. 1.Northeast Regional Epilepsy GroupNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Clinical PsychologyRusk Institute – NYU Langone HealthNew YorkUSA