Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_1639-2

Generic Name


Brand Name



Tricyclic antidepressant.

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Boosts neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine/noradrelaline; blocks serotonin transporter; apparently desensitizes both serotonin 1A receptors and beta adrenergic receptors.


Obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, cataplexy syndrome, premature ejaculation.

Off-Label Use

Anxiety, insomnia, chronic pain.

Side Effects


Paralytic ileus, hyperthermia, lowered seizure threshold and rare seizures, orthostatic hypotension, sudden death, arrhythmias, tachycardia, QTc prolongation, increased intraocular pressure, hepatic failure, extrapyramidal symptoms, mania, and suicidal ideation.


Blurred vision, constipation, increased appetite, urinary retention, dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea, heartburn, strange taste in mouth, weight gain, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, headache, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sedation, sexual dysfunction, sweating.

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ desk reference (71st ed.) (2017). Montvale: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.epocrates.com.
  2. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.medscape.com.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Socorro Mental HealthPresbyterian Medical ServicesSocorroUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA