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Interplay Between Maternal Micronutrients, DNA Methylation, and Brain Development

  • Richa Rathod
  • Sadhana JoshiEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Nutrition during critical periods of life (pregnancy and infancy) is known to play a major role in maintaining brain growth and development. The concept of early-life “programming” reflects the significance of early environmental exposures on the subsequent health of the offspring. Emerging evidence has shown an association between the early-life nutritional deficits with cognitive decline in later life. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Reports indicate that epigenetic mechanisms that are known to regulate gene expression may play a crucial role in mediating the link between early-life adversities and adult health. This chapter summarizes the role of maternal nutrition especially micronutrients in influencing brain development in the offspring. Micronutrients are required in smaller amounts by the body and act as cofactors for several enzymes involved in biological reactions within the cell. An overview of studies investigating the role of nutrition and DNA methylation patterns in the brain is also provided. A better understanding of the role of nutrition in influencing the brain epigenome may hold the key for prevention of brain disorders.

Keywords

B vitamins DNA methylation DOHaD DNA methyltransferases Epigenetics Micronutrients Neurodevelopment Omega-3 fatty acids One-carbon metabolism 

List of Abbreviations

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

DNMT

DNA methyltransferases

DOHaD

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

DOBHaD

Developmental Origins of Behavior, Health, and Disease

LCPUFAs

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

MeCP2

Methyl CpG-binding protein 2

SAH

S-adenosyl-homocysteine

SAM

S-adenosyl methionine

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutritional Medicine, Interactive Research School for Health AffairsBharati Vidyapeeth Deemed UniversityPuneIndia

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