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Epigenetic Regulation of Early Nutrition on Immune System

  • Lorella Paparo
  • Rosita Aitoro
  • Rita Nocerino
  • Carmen di Scala
  • Margherita Di Costanzo
  • Linda Cosenza
  • Viviana Granata
  • Roberto Berni CananiEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Diet and gut microbiota are considered two of the most important players in regulating immune system development and function in early life. Many of these effects are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The “nutriepigenomics” studies the interaction of nutrients with genome and describes their effect on human health through epigenetic modifications. Dietary fiber modulates gut microbiota and influences short-chain fatty acid production with a beneficial effect on immune system. An increasing number of evidences on epigenetic mechanisms regulated by nutrients are involved in the development of food allergy. New possible strategies, as the choice of dietary treatment, could regulate the epigenome, influencing food allergy disease course.

Keywords

Diet DNA methylation miRNA Histone Short-chain fatty acids Food allergy 

List of Abbreviations

CMA

Cow’s milk allergy

DCs

Dendritic cells

EHCF

Extensively hydrolyzed casein formula

EoE

Eosinophilic esophagitis

FA

Food allergy

GWAS

Genome-wide association study

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

LGG

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

PA

Peanut allergy

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2 synthesis

PUFAs

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

SCFAs

Short-chain fatty acids

Tregs

Regulatory T cells

TSLP

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorella Paparo
    • 1
  • Rosita Aitoro
    • 1
  • Rita Nocerino
    • 1
  • Carmen di Scala
    • 1
  • Margherita Di Costanzo
    • 1
  • Linda Cosenza
    • 1
  • Viviana Granata
    • 1
  • Roberto Berni Canani
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Translational Medical ScienceUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.European Laboratory for the Investigation of Food Induced Diseases (ELFID)University of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  3. 3.CEINGE Advanced BiotechnologiesUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly

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