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Epigenetics of Dietary Methyl-Group Donor Deficiency and Liver Cancer

  • Aline de ContiEmail author
  • Igor P. Pogribny
Reference work entry

Abstract

Food, nutritional factors, and dietary habits play a fundamental role in the etiology of cancer and contribute greatly to the development of liver cancer. One of the best characterized nutritional models of liver carcinogenesis that resembles the development of liver cancer in humans is dietary methyl donor deficiency in rodents. This model has been extensively studied, and the results have identified clearly non-genotoxic epigenetic alterations, especially methylation of DNA and histone proteins, as the underlying mechanism of the liver cancer development. Importantly, this methyl-deficient model allows the identification of early epigenetic alterations that persist during liver cancer development and that may be used as diagnostic biomarkers. The correction of epigenetic alterations by dietary interventions is a promising avenue for cancer control and prevention strategies.

Keywords

Betaine Choline Folic acid Hepatocarcinogenesis Histones methylation Liver cancer Methionine Methyl-deficient diet Methyl donors S-Adenosylmethionine One-carbon metabolism 

List of Abbreviations

5,10-MTHF

5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate

15-MTHF

5-Methyltetrahydrofolate

Bhmt

Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase

CBS

Cystathionine β-synthase

CGL

Cystathionine y-lyase

DNMTs

DNA methyltransferases

GNMT

Glycine N-methyltransferase

GSH

Glutathione

H4K20

Histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and histone H4 lysine 20

HBV

Hepatitis B

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCV

Hepatitis C

HCY

Homocysteine

MAT

Methionine adenosyltransferase

Mat1a

Methionine adenosyltransferase 1 alpha

MDD

Methyl-group donor-deficient

MET

L-Methionine

MS

Methionine synthase

MT

Methyltransferases

MTA

Methylthioadenosine

MTHFR

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

NAFLD

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

SAH

S-Adenosylhomocysteine

SAHH

SAH hydrolase

SAM

S-Adenosylmethionine

TET

Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase enzymes

THF

Tetrahydrofolate

αKB

α-Ketobutyrate

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Biochemical ToxicologyNational Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug AdministrationJeffersonUSA

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