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Nutritional Programming of Metabolic Syndrome: Role of Nutrients in Shaping the Epigenetics

  • Sonal Patel
  • Arpankumar Choksi
  • Richa Pant
  • Aftab Alam
  • Samit Chattopadhyay
Reference work entry

Abstract

Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome like obesity, heart diseases, and diabetes is an emerging public health problem. Susceptibility to such diseases has always been attributed to environmental and genetic factors which certainly play a pivotal role but cannot be the sole causal factor leading to metabolic syndrome. Epigenetics – a mediator between genetics and environment – is emerging as a potential candidate to explain the increase in the prevalence of such metabolic diseases. Changes in the epigenetic landscape marked by DNA methylation, histone methylation, and acetylation can lead to obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and vascular dysfunction in both animals and humans. Nutritional programming during early stages of life can manipulate the metabolism and the physiology of the organism. This is where the importance of optimal maternal nutrition comes into play. Both maternal under- and overnutrition have the potential to adversely affect the etiology of metabolic disorders in the developing fetus by changing the epigenetic marks. Various macronutrients and micronutrients in the maternal diet have also been shown to be exhibiting specific effect on the future health of the offspring. Though the role of epigenetics in fetal programming of metabolic syndrome is constantly being well understood, research on the therapeutic aspect is still in its infancy. Interventions and manipulation of dietary supplementation which potentially can make changes in the epigenetic marks can be the future therapeutic targets for chronic metabolic syndrome.

Keywords

Metabolic syndrome Obesity Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance Nutritional genetics Transgenerational effects Fetal nutrition Macro- and micronutrients Therapeutics 

List of Abbreviations

11β-HSD1

11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1

Agtr1b

Angiotensin II receptor, type 1b

AMPK

5′ AMP-activated protein kinase

CEBPB

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta

G6Pase

Glucose 6-phosphatase

GHSR

Growth hormone secretagogue receptor

GLUT4

Glucose transporter type 4

GR

Glucocorticoid receptor

HAT

Histone acetyltransferase

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

IGF2R

Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor

IGFBP3

Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3

IQ

Intelligence quotient

IUGR

Intrauterine growth restriction

LINE-1

Long interspersed nuclear element-1

LXRα

Liver X receptor alpha

NAD

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NOS3

Nitric oxide synthase

Pdx1

Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1

PEPCK

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

PGC-1α

PPAR gamma coactivator -1 alpha

PPARα

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SIRT1

Sirtuin 1

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid

ZFP423

Zinc finger protein 423

ZFP57

Zinc finger protein 57

RXRA

Retinoid X receptor alpha

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonal Patel
    • 2
  • Arpankumar Choksi
    • 2
  • Richa Pant
    • 2
  • Aftab Alam
    • 2
  • Samit Chattopadhyay
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Chemical BiologyKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Chromatin and Disease Biology Lab (# 08), National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS ComplexSavitribai Phule Pune University CampusPuneIndia

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