Epigenetic Alterations in Stomach Cancer: Implications for Diet and Nutrition

  • Carolina Oliveira GigekEmail author
  • Elizabeth Suchi Chen
  • Marilia Arruda Cardoso Smith
Reference work entry


Cancer is a malignant disease that involves a combination of genetic and epigenetic events along with external risk factors. Regarding stomach cancer, the risk factors include infections by Helicobacter pylori and by Epstein-Barr virus besides lifestyle habits, such as tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and high salt and low fruit and vegetable intakes. The stomach is one of the most predisposed organs to suffer aberrant epigenetic marks. Described alterations in stomach cancer comprise DNA methylation, histone marks, microRNA, and even enzymes involved in the epigenetic mechanisms. The relationship between cancer and diet is long established, and some nutrients can have a direct impact in the epigenetic of a cell, promoting or preventing gastric carcinogenesis. Intake of methionine, folate, polyphenols, alcohol, antioxidants such as curcumin and cranberries, and salty food has been shown to have an influence on the stomach tissue.


Stomach cancer Gastric cancer Epigenetics DNA methylation Histone acetylation microRNA Folate Methionine Curcumin Resveratrol Green tea Cruciferous Vegetables 

List of Abbreviations


AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A


Bone morphogenetic protein 8B


Cell division cycle protein 2 homolog




Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A


Caudal type homeobox 2


5′- Citosine-phosphate-guanine-3′




Deoxyribonucleic acid


DNA methyltransferase


Epstein-Barr virus




Heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1


Histone acetyltransferases


Histone deacetylases


Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer


Histone methyltransferase


International Agency for Research on Cancer




Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2


Micro-ribonucleic acid


MutL homolog 1


Messenger ribonucleic acid


Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells


Nitric oxide


Oncogenic miRNA


Protein P53


Phosphatase and tensin homolog




Reactive oxygen species


Runt-related transcription factor 3






Sirtuin 1


Trefoil factor 2


Three prime repair exonuclease 1


Trichostatin A


Tumor suppressor miRNA


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolina Oliveira Gigek
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Elizabeth Suchi Chen
    • 1
  • Marilia Arruda Cardoso Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Genetics, Department of Morphology and GeneticsUniversidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Division of Surgical Gastroenterology, Department of SurgeryUniversidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil

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