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Prenatal Programming and Epigenetics of Obesity Metabolic Phenotype: Pre- and Postnatal Metabolic Phenotypes and Molecular Mechanisms

  • Antonio Gonzalez-BulnesEmail author
  • Susana Astiz
Reference work entry

Abstract

The incidence of obesity and comorbidities has increased to epidemic levels in recent years, with important changes in the sociodemographic profile of the disease. At present, a high prevalence of the disease is not only found in developed countries but also in developing areas like India, Brazil, China, and Middle East countries. Concomitantly, the highest prevalence has moved from mature individuals to infant, young, and middle-aged populations. There is currently strong evidence supporting that these changes are related to modifications in nutritional patterns and lifestyle of women in childbearing age that affects prenatal and early postnatal environment, and therefore, modifies the developmental programming of their offspring. The present chapter outlines, based on the results of translational animal research and epidemiological human studies, the processes of developmental programming involved in the onset of obesity at infancy and adulthood.

Keywords

Animal models Developmental programming Epigenetics Fetus Intrauterine-growth-restriction Lifestyle Metabolism Metabolic syndrome Nutrition Obesity Obesogenics Pregnancy Transgenerational programming 

List of Abbreviations

AGRP

Agouti related protein

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DOHaD

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

IUGR

Intrauterine Growth Restriction or Retardation

LEP

Leptin

LEPR

Leptin receptor

LGA

Large-for-gestational-age

MC3R

Melanocortin 3 receptor

MC4R

Melanocortin 4 receptor

NPY

Neuropeptide Y

POMC

Propiomelanocortin

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

SGA

Small-for-gestational-age

α-MSH

Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Comparative Physiology Group. SGIT-INIAAvda. Puerta de Hierro s/nMadridSpain

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