Gas Hydrates: Formation, Structures, and Properties
In this chapter, the characteristics of clathrate hydrates of natural gases, generally called gas hydrates, will be presented. After an introduction to hydrate structures, which have been verified in nature as well as the associated hydrate formers, the phase diagrams exhibiting the stability fields and thermodynamic properties of these natural systems depending on their composition will be discussed. Natural gas hydrates are methane-rich but may also contain CO2, H2S, and other hydrocarbons and hence vary in their thermodynamic properties.
Different models regarding the formation and growth processes, including kinetics with respect to heat and mass transfer effects, experimental observations regarding the cage occupancy during the formation process as well as the influence of sediments and pore water salinity will be presented and discussed.
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