Advertisement

Bioactive Molecules, Nutraceuticals, and Functional Foods in Indian Vegetarian Diet and During Postpartum Healthcare

  • Jaya Arora
  • K. G. Ramawat
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Traditionally the majority population of the Indian subcontinent is vegetarian since ancient times due to social and religious guiding principle of the society. Consumption of whole grains of cereals and pulses, fruits, vegetables, and milk products is associated with vegetarian diet. Essentially all meals consist of flatbread, cooked pulses, a vegetable, curd/butter milk, and/or rice. Pulses are consumed in very large quantity, and several salted snacks and sweet preparations are available in the market. Beneficial effects of such products are now being revealed and scientifically validated by modern tools and techniques. In this review, we presented a concise and comprehensive scenario about vegetarian diet in Indian region enforced by caste system associated with religion. This leads to progression of hale and hearty brain and intellectual community of Brahmins consuming only vegetarian diet rich in fruits. Brahmin is a varna (class, caste) in Hinduism specializing as priests, teachers (acharya), and protectors of sacred learning across generations. Marriages within the caste further helped in gradual evolution of Brahmins (a kind of hybridization between superiors). Vegetarian diet is maintained from birth to until death. There is a well-defined and programmed vegetarian herbal diet starting from postpartum care, and beneficial effects of such diet are discussed in light of scientific information available. Effect of bioactive molecules present in these foods and safety aspect are also discussed.

Keywords

Vegetarian diet Postpartum Functional foods Bioactive molecules Caste system Hindu Brahmin diet 

References

  1. 1.
    Agrawal S, Millett CJ, Dhillon PK et al (2014) Type of vegetarian diet, obesity and diabetes in adult Indian population. Nutr J 13:89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Appleby PN, Key TJ (2016) The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans. Proc Nutr Soc 75(3):287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shridhar K, Dhillon PK, Bowen L, Kinra S, Bharathi AV et al (2014) The association between a vegetarian diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in India: the Indian Migration Study. PLoS One 9(10):e110586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anonymous (2017) Vegetarianism by country. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetarianism_by_country. Accessed 13 June 2017
  5. 5.
    Fraser GE (2016) The vegetarian advantage: its potential for the health of our planet, our livestock, and our neighbors! Forsch Komplementmed 23:66–68Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Craig WJ, Mangels AR (2009) Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc 109:1266–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chauhan A, Semwal DK, Mishra SP, Semwal RB (2015) Ayurvedic research and methodology: present status and future strategies. Ayu 36(4):364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ramawat KG, Dass S, Mathur M (2009) The chemical diversity of bioactive molecules and therapeutic potential of medicinal plants. In: Ramawat KG (ed) Herbal drugs: ethnomedicine to modern medicine. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    West RO, Hayes OB (1968) Diet and serum cholesterol levels: a comparison between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in a Seventh–Day Adventist group. Am J Clin Nutr 21:853–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Appleby PN, Thorogood M, McPherson K, Mann JL (1995) Associations between plasma lipid concentrations and dietary, lifestyle and physical factors in the Oxford Vegetarian Study. J Hum Nutr Diet 8:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fraser G, Katuli S, Anousheh R, Knutsen S, Herring P, Fan J (2014) Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular risk factors in black members of the Adventist Health Study-2. Public Health Nutr 17:1–9Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rouse IL, Beilin LJ, Armstrong BK, Vandongen R (1983) Blood pressure lowering effect of a vegetarian diet: controlled trial in normotensive subjects. Lancet 1:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Margetts BM, Beilin LJ, Vandongen R, Armstrong BK (1986) Vegetarian diet in mild hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. Br Med J 293:1468–1471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pettersen BJ, Anousheh R, Fan J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fraser GE (2012) Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study – 2 (AHS-2). Public Health Nutr 15:1909–1916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tonstad W, Stewart K, Oda K, Batech M, Herring RP, Fraser GE (2013) Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in Adventist Health Study-2. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23:292–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rosell M, Appleby P, Spencer E, Key T (2006) Weight gain over 5 years in 21,966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in EPIC-Oxford. Int J Obes (Lond) 30:1389–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Haddad E, Knutsen S, Bellinger D, Fraser G (2013) Vegetarian dietary patterns associated with biomarkers of cancer risk (Abstract). Am J Epidemiol 177(Suppl 11):S110Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kahleova H, Matoulek M, Malinska H et al (2011) Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 28:549–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Paalani M, Lee JW, Haddad E, Tonstad S (2011) Determinants of inflammatory markers in a bi-ethnic population. Ethn Dis 21:142–149Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schmidt JA, Rinaldi S, Scalbert A et al (2016) Plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids in male meat eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr 70(3):306–312.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2015.144
  21. 21.
    Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ (2002) The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:1441–1448Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wong JM (2014) Gut microbiota and cardiometabolic outcomes: influence of dietary patterns and their associated components. Am J Clin Nutr 100(Suppl 1):369S–377SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M et al (1999) Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 70(Suppl 3):516S–524SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Travis RC, Key TJ (2013) Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 97:597–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fraser GE (2005) A comparison of first event CHD rates in two contrasting California populations. J Nutr Health Aging 9:53–58Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tantamango-Bartley Y, Knutsen SF, Knutsen R et al (2016) Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer? Am J Clin Nutr 103:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J et al (2015) Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers. JAMA Intern Med 175:767–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yokoyama Y, Nishimura K, Barnard ND, Takegami M, Watanabe M, Sekikawa A et al (2014) Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a metaanalysis. JAMA Intern Med 174:577–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bernstein AM, Sun Q, Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Willett WC (2010) Major dietary protein sources and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation 122:876–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kaluza J, Åkesson A, Wolk A (2015) Long-term processed and unprocessed red meat consumption and risk of heart failure: a prospective cohort study of women. Int J Cardiol 193:42–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fretts AM, Follis JL, Nettleton JA et al (2015) Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians. Am J Clin Nutr 102:1266–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pan A, Sun Q, Bernstein AM et al (2013) Changes in red meat consumption and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: three cohorts of US men and women. JAMA Intern Med 173:1328–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lippi G, Mattiuzzi C, Cervellin G (2016) Meat consumption and cancer risk: a critical review of published metaanalyses. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 97:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hotz C, Gibson RS (2007) Traditional food-processing and preparation practices to enhance the bioavailability of micronutrients in plant-based diets. J Nutr 137:1097e100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reich D, Thangaraj K, Patterson N, Price AL, Singh L (2009) Reconstructing Indian population history. Nature 461:489–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Moorjani P, Thangaraj K, Patterson N, Lipson M et al (2013) Genetic evidence for recent population mixture in India. Am J Hum Genet 93:422–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sarkar P, Dhumal C, Panigrahi SS, Choudhary R (2015) Traditional and Ayurvedic foods of Indian origin. J Ethn Foods 2(3):97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Achaya KT (1994) Indian food: a historical companion. Oxford University Press, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Renfrew C (1990) Archaeology and language: the puzzle of Indo-European origins. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Costantini L (1984) The beginning of agriculture in the Kachi Plain: the evidence of Mehrgarh. In: Allchin B (ed) South Asian archaeology 1981. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fuller DQ (2011) Finding plant domestication in the Indian subcontinent. Curr Anthropol 52(S4):S347–S362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Witzel M (1999) Substrate languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Rigvedic, Middle and Late Vedic). Electron J Vedic Stud 5:1–67Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Census of India (2001) http://censusindia.gov.in/. Accessed 12 Oct 2017
  44. 44.
    Census of India (2011) http://censusindia.gov.in/. Accessed 12 Oct 2017
  45. 45.
    Tamang R, Thangaraj K (2012) Genomic view on the peopling of India. Investig Genet 3:20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mirmiran P, Noori N, Beheshti M, Azizi ZF (2009) Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Metabolism 58(4):460–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    He FJ, Nowson CA, MacGregor GA (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Lancet 367(9507):320–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brüssow H, Parkinson SJ (2014) You are what you eat. Nat Biotechnol 32:243–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sen CT (2004) Food culture in India. Greenwood Publishing Group, Santa BarbaraGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Phan MA, Paterson J, Bucknall M, Arcot J (2016) Interactions between phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables: effects on bioactivities and bioavailability. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 17:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Slavin J (2004) Whole grains and human health. Nutr Res Rev 17(1):99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Huggett AC, Schliter B (1996) Research needs for establishing the safety of functional foods. Nutr Rev 54:S143–S148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hallifrisch A, Hall J (2000) Textbook of medical physiology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Teradal D, Joshi N, Aladakatti RH (2017) Therapeutic evaluation of grain based functional food formulation in a geriatric animal model. J Food Sci Technol 54(9):2789–2796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dixit AA, Azar KMJ, Gardener CD, Palaippan NP (2011) Incorporation of whole grain, ancient grains in to a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Nutr Rev 69(8):479–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rebello CJ, Greenway FL, Finley JW (2014) Whole grains and pulses: a comparison of the nutritional and health benefits. J Agric Food Chem 62(29):7029–7049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nikmaram N, Dar B, Roohinejad S, Koubaa M, Barba FJ, Greiner R, Johnson SK (2017) Recent advances in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) properties in pulses: an overview. J Sci Food Agric 97:2681–2689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2014) Statistics division. Rome. Accessed 25 July 2017Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bhattacharya M (2015) A historical exploration of Indian diets and a possible link to insulin resistance syndrome. Appetite 95:421–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Liu RH (2003) Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr 78(Suppl):517S–520SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Liu RH (2013) Health-promoting components of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Adv Nutr 4:384S–392SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kalra EK (2003) Nutraceutical: definition and introduction. AAPS PharmSci 5(3):1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017) http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/csdb/en/. Accessed 25 July 2017
  64. 64.
    Rao NBS (2003) Bioactive phytochemicals in Indian foods and their potential in health promotion and disease prevention. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12(1):9–22Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Birch GG, Parker KJ (1982) Dietary fibre. Applied Science Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Arshad MS, Kwon JH, Anjum FM, Sohaib M et al (2017) Wheat antioxidants, their role in bakery industry, and health perspective. In: Wanyera R, Owuoche J (eds) Wheat improvement, management and utilization. InTech, London, UK.  https://doi.org/10.5772/67276
  67. 67.
    Nepali S, Ki HH, Lee JH, Lee HY, Kim DK, Lee YM (2017) Wheatgrass-derived polysaccharide has antiinflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects on LPS-induced hepatic injury in mice. Phytother Res 31(7):1107–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Idehen E, Tang Y, Sang S (2017) Bioactive phytochemicals in barley. J Food Drug Anal 25(1):148–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gangopadhyay N, Hossain MB, Rai DK, Brunton NP (2017) A review of extraction and analysis of bioactives in oat and barley and scope for use of novel food processing technologies. Molecules 20(6):10884–10909Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gupta RK, Gupta K, Sharma A, Das M, Ansari IA, Dwivedi PD (2017) Health risks and benefits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) consumption. J Agric Food Chem 65(1):6–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tang D, Dong Y, Ren H, Li L, He C (2014) A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata). Chem Cent J 8:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wahby MM, Mohammed DS, Newairy AA, Abdou HM, Zaky A (2017) Aluminum-induced molecular neurodegeneration: the protective role of genistein and chickpea extract. Food Chem Toxicol 107(Pt A):57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Boers HM, MacAulay K, Murray P, Dobriyal R, Mela DJ, Spreeuwenberg MA (2017) Efficacy of fibre additions to flatbread flour mixes for reducing post-meal glucose and insulin responses in healthy Indian subjects. Br J Nutr 117(3):386–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N (2010) Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev 4(8):118–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stefanis L, Burke RE, Greene LA (1997) Apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders. Curr Opin Neurol 10:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shashirekha MN, Mallikarjuna SE, Rajarathnam S (2015) Status of bioactive compounds in foods, with focus on fruits and vegetables. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 55(10):1324–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ansari P, Afroz N, Jalil S, Azad SB, Mustakim MG, Anwar S, Haque SM, Hossain SM, Tony RR, Hannan JM (2017) Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. is partly mediated by increased insulin secretion, α-amylase inhibition, and retardation of glucose absorption. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 30(1):37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Shinde PB, Katekhaye SD, Mulik MB, Laddha KS (2014) Rapid simultaneous determination of marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin from Aegle marmelos fruit by RP-HPLC. J Food Sci Technol 51(9):2251–2255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sun G, Zheng Z, Lee MH, Xu Y, Kang S et al (2017) Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by artocarpin, a dietary phytochemical from Artocarpus heterophyllus. J Agric Food Chem 65(17):3474–3480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yao X, Wu D, Dong N, Ouyang P, Pu J et al (2016) Moracin C, A phenolic compound isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus, suppresses lipopolysaccharide-activated inflammatory responses in murine raw264.7 macrophages. Int J Mol Sci 17(8):1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Krishna KL, Paridhavi M, Patel JA (2008) Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.). Nat Prod Radiance 7(4):364–373Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Somanah J, Bourdon E, Bahorun T (2017) Extracts of Mauritian Carica papaya (var. solo) protects SW872 and HepG2 cells against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress. J Food Sci Technol 54(7):1917–1927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Aptekmann NP, Cesar TB (2010) Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training. Maturitas 67(4):343–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Giampieri F, Forbes-Hernandez TY, Gasparrini M et al (2017) The healthy effects of strawberry bioactive compounds on molecular pathways related to chronic diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1398(1):62–71.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13373
  85. 85.
    Naz S, Farooq U, Khan A et al (2017) Antidepressent effect of two new benzyl derivatives from wild strawberry Fragaria vesca var. nubicola Lindl. ex Hook.f. Front Pharmacol 8:469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    González-Aguilar G, Robles-Sánchez RM, Martínez-Téllez MA, Olivas GI, Alvarez-Parrilla E, de la Rosa LA (2008) Bioactive compounds in fruits: health benefits and effect of storage conditions. Stewart Postharvest Rev 3:8Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Yoon H, Liu RH (2007) Effect of selected phytochemicals and apple extracts on NF-κB activation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. J Agric Food Chem 55:3167–3317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Khurana RK, Kaur R, Lohan S, Singh KK, Singh B (2016) Mangiferin: a promising anticancer bioactive. Pharm Pat Anal 5(3):169–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    López-Cobo A, Verardo V, Diaz-de-Cerio E, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A, Gómez-Caravaca AM (2017) Use of HPLC- and GC-QTOF to determine hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols in mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) and its by-products. Food Res Int 100(Pt 3):423–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Matkowski A, Kuś P, Góralska E, Woźniak D (2013) Mangiferin – a bioactive xanthonoid, not only from mango and not just antioxidant. Mini Rev Med Chem 13(3):439–455Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Shah KA, Patel MB, Patel RJ, Parmar PK (2010) Mangifera indica (Mango). Pharmacogn Rev 4(7):42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Alese MO, Adewole SO, Akinwunmi KF, Omonisi AE, Alese OO (2017) Aspirin-induced gastric lesions alters EGFR and PECAM-1 immunoreactivity in wistar rats: modulatory action of flavonoid fraction of Musa paradisiaca. Maced J Med Sci 5(5):569–577Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mittal P, Gupta V, Kaur G, Garg AK, Singh A (2010) Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Psidium guajava: a review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 1(9):9–19Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kumar V, Aneesh KA, Kshemada K et al (2017) Amalaki rasayana, a traditional Indian drug enhances cardiac mitochondrial and contractile functions and improves cardiac function in rats with hypertrophy. Sci Rep 7(1):8588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zhang J, Miao D, Zhu WF et al (2017) Biological activities of phenolics from the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae). Chem Biodivers.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201700404
  96. 96.
    Gumienna M, Szwengiel A, Górna B (2016) Bioactive components of pomegranate fruit and their transformation by fermentation processes. Eur Food Res Technol 242:631–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sahebkar A, Ferri C, Giorgini P, Bo S, Nachtigal P, Grassi D (2016) Effects of pomegranate juice on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacol Res 115:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    George BP, Abrahamse H, Hemmaragala NM (2017) Phenolics from Rubus fairholmianus induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Chem Biol Interact S0009-2797(17):30392–30397Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Figueiras Abdala A, Mendoza N, Valadez Bustos N, Escamilla Silva EM (2017) Antioxidant capacity analysis of blackberry extracts with different phytochemical compositions and optimization of their ultrasound assisted extraction. Plant Foods Hum Nutr.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-017-0616-3
  100. 100.
    Shrikanta A, Kumar A, Govindaswamy V (2015) Resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits. J Food Sci Technol 52(1):383–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Srivastava S, Chandra D (2013) Pharmacological potentials of Syzygium cumini: a review. J Sci Food Agric 93(9):2084–2093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tahergorabi Z, Abedini MR, Mitra M, Fard MH, Beydokhti H (2015) “Ziziphus jujuba”: a red fruit with promising anticancer activities. Pharmacogn Rev 9(18):99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Gao QH, Wu CS, Wang M (2013) The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit: a review of current knowledge of fruit composition and health benefits. J Agric Food Chem 61(14):3351–3363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Duarte CEM, Abranches MV, Silva PF, de Paula SO, Cardoso SA, Oliveira LL (2017) A new TRAF-like protein from B. oleracea ssp. botrytis with lectin activity and its effect on macrophages. Int J Biol Macromol 94(Pt A):508–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Morales-López J, Centeno-Álvarez M, Nieto-Camacho A, López MG, Pérez-Hernández E, Pérez-Hernández N, Fernández-Martínez E (2017) Evaluation of antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of white cabbage essential oil. Pharm Biol 55(1):233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Maji AK, Banerji P (2016) Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review. J Complement Integr Med 13(2):97–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lone BA, Chishti MZ, Bhat FA, Tak H, Bandh SA, Khan A (2017) Evaluation of anthelmintic antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Chenopodium album. Trop Anim Health Prod.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1364-y
  108. 108.
    Morris JB, Wang ML (2017) Functional vegetable guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) accessions for improving flavonoid concentrations in immature pods. J Diet Suppl 14(2):146–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sharma P, Dubey G, Kaushik S (2011) Chemical and medico-biological profile of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L) Taub: an overview. J Appl Pharma Sci 1:32–37Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shakib MC, Gabrial SG, Gabrial GN (2015) Beetroot-carrot juice intake either alone or in combination with antileukemic drug ‘chlorambucil’ as a potential treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Maced J Med Sci 3(2):331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Zaini RG, Brandt K, Clench MR, Le Maitre CL (2012) Effects of bioactive compounds from carrots (Daucus carota L.), polyacetylenes, beta-carotene and lutein on human lymphoid leukaemia cells. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 12(6):640–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Prajapati RP, Kalariya M, Parmar SK, Sheth NR (2010) Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria. J Ayurveda Integr Med 1(4):266–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fachinan R, Fagninou A, Nekoua MP et al (2017) Evidence of immunosuppressive and Th2 immune polarizing effects of antidiabetic Momordica charantia fruit juice. Biomed Res Int.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9478048
  114. 114.
    Dandawate PR, Subramaniam D, Padhye SB, Anant S (2016) Bitter melon: a panacea for inflammation and cancer. Chin J Nat Med 14(2):81–100Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gutierrez RM, Perez RL (2004) Raphanus sativus (Radish): their chemistry and biology. Sci World J 4:811–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Capel C, Yuste-Lisbona FJ, López-Casado G (2017) QTL mapping of fruit mineral contents provides new chances for molecular breeding of tomato nutritional traits. Theor Appl Genet 130(5):903–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Gerszberg A, Hnatuszko-Konka K, Kowalczyk T, Kononowicz AK (2015) Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the service of biotechnology. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 120(3):881–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Das M, Barua N (2013) Pharmacological activities of Solanum melongena linn. (brinjal plant). Int J Green Pharm 7(4):274–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lester GE, Makus DJ, Hodges DM (2010) Relationship between fresh-packaged spinach leaves exposed to continuous light or dark and bioactive contents: effects of cultivar, leaf size, and storage duration. J Agric Food Chem 58(5):2980–2987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Panda V, Mistry K, Sudhamani S, Nandave M, Ojha SK (2017) Amelioration of abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome by Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) consumption and aerobic exercise in rats. Oxid Med Cell Longev.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2359389
  121. 121.
    Roberts JL, Moreau R (2016) Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives. Food Funct 7(8):3337–3353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Blenning CE, Paladine H (2005) An approach to the postpartum office visit. Am Fam Physician 72:2491–2498Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Chen LW, Low YL, Fok D et al (2013) Dietary changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian women: the GUSTO birth cohort study. Public Health Nutr 17(9):1930–1938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Choudhry UK (1996) Traditional practices of women from India pregnancy childbirth, and newborn care. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 26:533–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Abu-Saad K, Fraser D (2010) Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes. Epidemiol Rev 32:5–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hayat L, al-Sughayer MA, Afzal M (1999) Fatty acid composition of human milk in Kuwaiti mothers. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 124:261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Cervera P, Ngo J (2001) Dietary guidelines for the breastfeeding woman. Public Health Nutr 4:1357–1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Piccoli GB, Clari R, Vigotti FN et al (2015) Vegan–vegetarian diets in pregnancy: danger or panacea? A systematic narrative review. BJOG 122:623–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H (2003) Antioxidant activity of betalains from plants of the amaranthaceae. J Agric Food Chem 51:2288–2294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Jain N, Goyal S, Ramawat KG (2011) Evaluation of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of medicinal plants used in diet therapy during postpartum. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 3(3):248–253Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Butt MS, Sultan MT (2011) Ginger and its health claims: molecular aspects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 51(5):383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ramawat KG, Merillon JM (2013) Handbook of natural products – phytochemistry, botany, metabolism, vol I. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ramawat KG (2009) Herbal drugs: ethnomedicine to modern medicine. Springer, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Khare CP (2007) Indian medicinal plants: an illustrated dictionary. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kuroda S, Watanabe M, Santo T, Shimizuishi Y, Takano T et al (2010) Postpartum increase of serum thioredoxin concentration and the relation to CD8 lymphocytes. Ann Clin Biochem 47:62–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Harzer G, Dieterich I, Haug M (1984) Effects of the diet on the composition of human milk. Ann Nutr Metab 28:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Nasser R, Stephen AM, Goh YK, Clandinin MT (2010) The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada. Int Breastfeed J 5(1):3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Innis SM (2007) Human milk: maternal dietary lipids and infant development. Proc Nutr Soc 66:397–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hachey DL, Thomas MR, Emken EA, Garza C, Brown-Booth L, Adlof RO, Klein PD (1987) Human lactation: maternal transfer to dietary triglycerides labeled with stable isotopes. J Lipid Res 28:1185–1192Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Emken EA, Adlof RO, Hachey DL, Garza C, Thomas MR, Brown-Booth L (1989) Incorporation of deuterium-labeled fatty acids into human milk, plasma and lipoprotein phospholipids and cholesterol esters. J Lipid Res 30:395–402Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Thompson BJ, Smith S (1985) Biosynthesis of fatty acids by lactating human breast epithelial cells: an evaluation of the contribution to the overall composition of human milk fat. Pediatr Res 19:139–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Fritsche J, Steinhart H (1998) Analysis, occurrence, and physiological properties of trans fatty acids (TFA) with particular emphasis on conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA): a review. Fett-Lipid 100:190–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ritzenthaler KL, McGuire MK, Falen R, Shultz TD, Dasgupta N, McGuire MA (2001) Estimation of conjugated linoleic acid intake by written dietary assessment methodologies underestimates actual intake evaluated by food duplicate methodology. J Nutr 131:1548–1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Rist L, Mueller A, Barthel C et al (2007) Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands. Br J Nutr 97(4):735–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rist L, Zweidler R, von Mandach U (2003) In: Freyer B (ed) Contributions to the 7th research conference on organic agriculture: organic agriculture of the future. University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, pp 237–240Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaya Arora
    • 1
  • K. G. Ramawat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity College of Science, M. L. Sukhadia UniversityUdaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations