Tea, Coffee and Health Benefits

  • Sumio HayakawaEmail author
  • Yumiko Oishi
  • Hiroki Tanabe
  • Mamoru Isemura
  • Yasuo Suzuki
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


A number of epidemiological studies and clinical trials have reported the beneficial effects of both green tea and coffee on human health, including anticancer, anti-obesity, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and hepatoprotective effects. Furthermore, these findings in humans are supported by cell-based and animal experiments. These effects have been attributed to epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in green tea and chlorogenic acid (CGA) in coffee, which have been proposed to function via various mechanisms of action, the most important of which appears to implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both EGCG and CGA can exert conflicting dual actions as an antioxidant and a prooxidant. Their antioxidative action can scavenge ROS, leading to downregulation of nuclear factor-κB to produce various favorable effects such as anti-inflammatory effects and cancer cell apoptosis. The prooxidant actions, however, can promote the generation of ROS leading to the activation of 5’AMP-dependent protein kinase, which modulates various enzymes and factors with beneficial roles. At present, it remains unclear how EGCG and CGA can be directed to act as either a prooxidant or an antioxidant, although their cellular concentrations, the presence of metal cations such as Cu+ and Fe++, and the redox state of the cells appear to be important factors. Notably, several human studies did not report the beneficial health effects of green tea and coffee. The inconsistent results may have been caused by various confounding factors including smoking, intestinal microbiota, and genetic factors. This chapter examines the current information on these properties of green tea and coffee with the aim of improving the understanding of a way to enjoy healthy longevity.


Green tea Coffee Polyphenol Catechin EGCG Chlorogenic acid Human health ROS NF-κB 



Acetyl-CoA carboxylase


Angiotensin-converting enzyme


Aberrant crypt foci


Alanine aminotransferase


5′-AMP-activated protein kinase






Aspartate aminotransferase




Body mass index


CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein


Chlorogenic acid


Chronic lymphocytic leukemia




Coffee polyphenols


Cardiovascular disease


Diastolic blood pressure






Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 


Fatty acid synthase




Green coffee extract


Glucose transporter


Glutathione S-transferase


Green tea catechin


Green tea extract


Green tea polyphenol


Hemoglobin A1c


Hepatitis B virus


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hepatitis C virus


High-density lipoprotein


High-fat diet


Hepatocyte nuclear factor


Heme oxygenase


Hazard ratio


Human antigen R




Insulin-like growth factor




Insulin receptor substrate


Low-density lipoprotein


Lipoprotein lipase


Liver X receptor


Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Metabolic syndrome


Matrix metalloproteinase


Mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease


Nuclear factor-kappa B


Nitric oxide


Nitric oxide synthase


Nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2


Odds ratio


Prostate cancer


Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase


Protein kinase C


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor


Polyphenon E


Qushi Huayu Decoction


Reactive oxygen species


Relative risk


Retinoid X receptor


Systolic blood pressure


Spontaneously hypertensive rats


Sterol-responsive element-binding protein


Signal transducer and activator of transcription




Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Tumor necrosis factor


Regulatory T


Vascular endothelial growth factor


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sumio Hayakawa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yumiko Oishi
    • 1
  • Hiroki Tanabe
    • 2
  • Mamoru Isemura
    • 3
  • Yasuo Suzuki
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Medical Research InstituteTokyo Medical and Dental UniversityBunkyo-ku, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Welfare ScienceNayoro City UniversityNayoro-City, HokkaidoJapan
  3. 3.Tea Science Research CenterUniversity of ShizuokaSuruga-ku, ShizuokaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Nutrition Management, Faculty of Health ScienceHyogo UniversityKakogawa, HyogoJapan

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