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Tea, Coffee and Health Benefits

  • Sumio HayakawaEmail author
  • Yumiko Oishi
  • Hiroki Tanabe
  • Mamoru Isemura
  • Yasuo Suzuki
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

A number of epidemiological studies and clinical trials have reported the beneficial effects of both green tea and coffee on human health, including anticancer, anti-obesity, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and hepatoprotective effects. Furthermore, these findings in humans are supported by cell-based and animal experiments. These effects have been attributed to epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in green tea and chlorogenic acid (CGA) in coffee, which have been proposed to function via various mechanisms of action, the most important of which appears to implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both EGCG and CGA can exert conflicting dual actions as an antioxidant and a prooxidant. Their antioxidative action can scavenge ROS, leading to downregulation of nuclear factor-κB to produce various favorable effects such as anti-inflammatory effects and cancer cell apoptosis. The prooxidant actions, however, can promote the generation of ROS leading to the activation of 5’AMP-dependent protein kinase, which modulates various enzymes and factors with beneficial roles. At present, it remains unclear how EGCG and CGA can be directed to act as either a prooxidant or an antioxidant, although their cellular concentrations, the presence of metal cations such as Cu+ and Fe++, and the redox state of the cells appear to be important factors. Notably, several human studies did not report the beneficial health effects of green tea and coffee. The inconsistent results may have been caused by various confounding factors including smoking, intestinal microbiota, and genetic factors. This chapter examines the current information on these properties of green tea and coffee with the aim of improving the understanding of a way to enjoy healthy longevity.

Keywords

Green tea Coffee Polyphenol Catechin EGCG Chlorogenic acid Human health ROS NF-κB 

Abbreviations

ACC

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACF

Aberrant crypt foci

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

AMPK

5′-AMP-activated protein kinase

ANI

α-Naphthylisothiocyanate

AOM

Azoxymethane

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase

BBN

N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine

BMI

Body mass index

C/EBP

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein

CGA

Chlorogenic acid

CLL

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

COX

Cyclooxygenase

CPP

Coffee polyphenols

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DBP

Diastolic blood pressure

EC

(−)-Epicatechin

EGCG

(−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 

FASN

Fatty acid synthase

G6Pase

Glucose-6-phosphatase

GCE

Green coffee extract

GLUT

Glucose transporter

GST

Glutathione S-transferase

GTC

Green tea catechin

GTE

Green tea extract

GTP

Green tea polyphenol

HbA1c

Hemoglobin A1c

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HFD

High-fat diet

HNF

Hepatocyte nuclear factor

HO

Heme oxygenase

HR

Hazard ratio

HuR

Human antigen R

IFN

Interferon

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

IL

Interleukin

IRS

Insulin receptor substrate

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

LPL

Lipoprotein lipase

LXR

Liver X receptor

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MetS

Metabolic syndrome

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

mTOR

Mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase

NAFLD

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

NF-κB

Nuclear factor-kappa B

NO

Nitric oxide

NOS

Nitric oxide synthase

Nrf2

Nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2

OR

Odds ratio

PCa

Prostate cancer

PEPCK

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

PKC

Protein kinase C

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

PPE

Polyphenon E

QHD

Qushi Huayu Decoction

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RR

Relative risk

RXR

Retinoid X receptor

SBP

Systolic blood pressure

SHR

Spontaneously hypertensive rats

SREBP

Sterol-responsive element-binding protein

STAT

Signal transducer and activator of transcription

STZ

Streptozotocin

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

Treg

Regulatory T

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sumio Hayakawa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yumiko Oishi
    • 1
  • Hiroki Tanabe
    • 2
  • Mamoru Isemura
    • 3
  • Yasuo Suzuki
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Medical Research InstituteTokyo Medical and Dental UniversityBunkyo-ku, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Welfare ScienceNayoro City UniversityNayoro-City, HokkaidoJapan
  3. 3.Tea Science Research CenterUniversity of ShizuokaSuruga-ku, ShizuokaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Nutrition Management, Faculty of Health ScienceHyogo UniversityKakogawa, HyogoJapan

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