Methanogenesis in Soils, Wetlands, and Peat
Soil is the naturally occurring rock particles and decaying organic matter (humus) on the surface of the Earth, capable of supporting life. It has three components: solid, liquid, and gas. The solid phase is a mixture of mineral and organic matter. Wetlands are areas on which water covers the soil or where water is present either at or near the surface of that soil. Wetlands often host considerable biodiversity and endemism. Their hydrological conditions are characterized by an absence of free oxygen sometimes or always. It favors the development of anaerobic microbial community. In the absence of electron acceptors other than bicarbonate, methane is the end product of organic matter degradation in wetland ecosystems. It makes wetlands important sources of the greenhouse gas CH4 in the context of the problem of global climate changes. Peatlands are a type of wetlands and form when plant material is inhibited from decaying by acidic and anaerobic conditions.
Methane production in peatlands tends to vary tremendously both spatially and temporally and depends on environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and water table, as well as plant cover. In anaerobic peat, acetate and CO2 are the most quantitatively important CH4 precursors. Most studies suggest that acetoclastic methanogenesis is an important pathway for CH4 formation in nutrient-rich fens covered with Carex sedges, whereas CO2 reduction is an important methanogenic pathway in Sphagnum-dominated bogs. Such bogs, the predominant peatlands, are typically acidic (pH < 5) with low concentrations of mineral nutrients. The Sphagnum bog microbes seem to have special metabolic mechanisms to cope with low-mineral and diluted nonbuffered solutions. As a whole, the soil microbial community in wetlands plays an important role in biogeochemical cycles and is crucial to the functions of wetland systems. Research on the diversity and abundance microorganisms in wetlands rapidly develops owing to the advantages of molecular biological methods. The insights into the microbial community functioning and adaptation mechanisms in wetlands provide a valuable background for studies on biotechnological applications of microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems.
We would like to thank Dr. S.N. Dedysh for her valuable advices during the preparation of this manuscript.
This work was supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (17-17-01204).
- Bhattacharyya A, Majumder NS, Basak P, Mukherji S, Roy D, Nag S, Haldar A, Chattopadhyay D, Mitra S, Bhattacharyya M, Ghosh A (2015) Diversity and distribution of archaea in the mangrove sediment of sundarbans. Archaea:968582. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/968582
- Bloom AA, Bowman K, Lee M, Turner AJ, Schroeder R, Worden JR, Weidner R, McDonald KC, Jacob DJ (2016) A global wetland methane emissions and uncertainty dataset for atmospheric chemical transport models. Geosci Model Dev Discuss. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2016-224
- Dedysh SN, Ivanova AA (2019) Planctomycetes in boreal and subarctic wetlands: diversity patterns and potential ecological functions. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 95(2). https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiy227
- Dedysh SN, Liesack W, Khmelenina VN, Suzina NE, Trotsenko YA, Semrau JD, Bares AM, Panikov NS, Tiedje JM (2000) Methylocellapalustris gen. nov., sp. nov., a new methane-oxidizing acidophilic bacterium from peat bogs, representing a novel subtype of serine-pathway methanotrophs. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:955–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- He S, Malfatti SA, McFarland JW, Anderson FE, Pati A, Huntemann M, Tremblay J, Glavina del Rio T, Waldrop MP, Windham-Myers L, Tringe SG (2015) Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions. mBio 6:e00066-15. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00066-15. Bailey MJ, ed.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hunger S, Gӧβner AS, Drake HL (2015) Anaerobic trophic interactions of contrasting methane-emitting mire soils: processes versus taxa. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 91. https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiv045
- IPCC (2013) Carbon and other biogeochemical cycles, Chapter 6. In: Climate change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Global methane budget, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. pp 505–510 Google Scholar
- Kelsey KC, Leffler AJ, Beard KH, Schmutz JA, Choi RT, Welker JM (2016) Interactions among vegetation, climate, and herbivory control greenhouse gas fluxes in a subarctic coastal wetland. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 121. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JG003546
- Kotsyurbenko OR, Friedrich MW, Simankova MV, Nozhevnikova AN, Golyshin PN, Timmis KN, Conrad R (2007) Shift from acetoclastic to H2-dependent methanogenmesis in a West Siberian peat bog at low pH values and isolation of an acidophilic Methanobacterium strain. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:2344–2348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kutzbach L, Wagner D, Pfeiffer EM (2004) Effect of microrelief and vegetation on methane emission from wet polygonal tundra, Lena Delta, Northern Siberia. Biogeochemistry 69:341–362. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOG.0000031053.81520.dbCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kwon MJ, Beulig F, Ilie I, Wildner M, Küsel K, Merbold L, Mahecha MD, Zimov N, Zimov SA, Heimann M, Schuur EAG, Kostka JE, Kolle O, Hilke I, Göckede M (2017) Plants, microorganisms, and soil temperatures contribute to a decrease in methane fluxes on a drained Arctic floodplain. Glob Chang Biol 23:2396–2412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lin Y, Liu D, Ding W, Kang H, Freeman C, Yuan J, Xiang J (2015) Substrate sources regulate spatial variation of metabolically active methanogens from two contrasting freshwater wetlands. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-015-6912-7
- Nisbet RER, Fisher R, Nimmo RH, Bendall DS, Crill PM, Gallego-Sala AV, Hornibrook ERC, López-Juez E, Lowry D, Nisbet PBR, Shuckburgh EF, Sriskantharajah S, Howe CJ, Nisbet EG (2009) Emission of methane from plants. Proc R Soc B 276:1347–1354. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.1731CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Serkebaeva YM, Kim Y, Liesack W, Dedysh SN (2013) Pyrosequencing-based assessment of the bacteria diversity in surface and subsurface peat layers of a northern wetland, with focus on poorly studied phyla and candidate divisions. PLoS One 8:e63994. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063994CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Smagin AV, Glagolev MV (2001) Mathematical models of generation, uptake and emission of methane by the soil. Proceedings of the international field symposium “West Siberian Peatlands and carbon cycle: past and present”, Noyabr’sk, 18–22 Aug 2001. Sibprint Agency, Novosibirsk, pp 127–130Google Scholar
- Sӧllinger A, Schwab C, Weinmaier T, Loy A, Tveit AT, Schleper C, Urich T (2016) Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of Methanomassilii coccales in wetlands and animal intestinal tracts reveals clade-specific habitat preferences. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 92:fiv149. https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiv149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stoeva MK, Aris-Brosou S, Chételat J, Hintelmann H, Pelletier P, Poulain AJ (2014) Microbial community structure in lake and wetland sediments from a high arctic polar desert revealed by targeted transcriptomics. PLoS ONE 9:e89531. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089531CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar