Basic Statistics and Clinical Studies in Radiation Oncology

  • Lothar R PilzEmail author
Living reference work entry


In moving to the principle of evidence based medicine especially for the efficacy in diagnosis and interventional treatment in the middle of the last century, the epoch of clinical trials started and with this, statistical standards are now part of the conditions in methodological and systematic scientific approach in treating patients and improve care. Following this principle in radiation oncology, evidence based medicine relies on data sampled in strongly defined populations showing explicit characteristics of certain diseases and of healthy controls, or controls not showing these characteristics. This approach is turning away from patient centered research focusing in single or small groups of patients and will in so far enhance the experience of clinicians. That does not mean that only prospective studies are in the focus, but also a systematic retrospective look back is of importance in gaining information.

The information in this section is split into two parts (i) basic medical statistics and (ii) main issues of clinical trials. Since it is far from being complete it should be taken as a small compendium for a first reading to inform interested oncologists in a condensed way about the key aspects in medical statistics and clinical trials in radiation oncology and should be taken as an introduction and aid for further reading.


Biometry Clinical statistics Clinical studies Statistical hypothesis Statistical testing proedures 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical Faculty Mannheim and Heinrich Lanz ZentrumUniversität HeidelbergMannheimGermany
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Molecular BiologyMedical University of BialystokBialystokPoland

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