Encyclopedia of Wildfires and Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) Fires

Living Edition
| Editors: Samuel L. Manzello

Safety Zone

  • B. W. ButlerEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51727-8_25-1

Synonyms

Definition

A preplanned area of sufficient size and suitable location that is expected to protect fire personnel from known hazards without using fire shelters.

Discussion

The National Wildfire Coordinating Group and NIFC (2004) define safety zones as preplanned areas of refuge that can be utilized without the use of fire shelters in case of entrapment. The earliest known guideline was developed by Green and Schimke (1971) in relation to fuel breaks for high-intensity brush fires based on radiant heating. A more recent model advanced by Butler and Cohen (1998a) was also developed based on radiant heating, which was distilled to a general guideline suggesting that the separation distance between the firefighters and the flames should be at least four times the flame height (Butler and Cohen 1998b; National Wildfire Coordinating Group and NIFC 2004). Additionally, Zárate et al. (2008) and Rossi et al. (2011) produced other physically based radiant heat...

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References

  1. Butler BW (2014a) Wildland firefighter safety zones: a review of past science and summary of future needs. Int J Wildland Fire 23(3):295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Butler BW (2014b) A study of the impact of slope and wind on firefigher safety zone effectiveness. Final report for JFSP Project 07-2-1-10, 21 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Butler BW, Cohen JD (1998a) Firefighter safety zones: how big is big enough? Fire Manag Notes 58:13–16Google Scholar
  4. Butler BW, Cohen JD (1998b) Firefighter safety zones: a theoretical model based on radiative heating. Int J Wildland Fire 8:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Butler B, Parsons R, Mell W (2015) Recent findings relating to firefighter safety zones. In: Keane RE, Jolly M, Parsons R, Riley K (eds) Proceedings of the large wildland fires conference; May 19-23, 2014; Missoula, MT. Proc. RMRS-P-73. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, pp 30–34Google Scholar
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  7. Gleason P (1991) LCES-A key to safety in the wildland fire environment. Fire Manag Notes 52(4):9Google Scholar
  8. Green LR, Schimke HE (1971) Guides for fuel-breaks in the Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer type. USDA, Forest Service, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  9. National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) (2019) 6 minutes for safety: safety zone research. https://www.nwcg.gov/committee/6mfs/safety-zone-research
  10. National Wildfire Coordinating Group, NIFC (2004) NWCG Fireline Handbook. National Wildfire Coordinating Group, Boise. NWCG Handbook 3, PMS 410-1, NFES 0065, 437 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Rossi JL, Simeoni A, Moretti B, Leroy-Cancellieri V (2011) An analytical model based on radiative heating for the determination of safety distances for wildland fires. Fire Saf J 46:520–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Thorburn RW, Alexander ME (2001) LACES versus LCES: adopting an ‘A’ for ‘anchor points’ to improve wildland firefighter safety. In: Proceedings of the 2001 international wildland fire safety summit, pp 6–8.Google Scholar
  13. Yedinak KM, Cohen JD, Forthofer JM, Finney MA (2010) An examination of flame shape related to convection heat transfer in deep-fuel beds. Int J Wildland Fire 19:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Zarate L, Arnaldos J, Casal J (2008) Establishing safety distances for wildland fires. Fire Saf J 43:565–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Missoula Fire Science LaboratoryUS Forest ServiceMissoulaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sara McAllister
    • 1
  1. 1.USDA Forest ServiceRMRS Missoula Fire Sciences LaboratoryMissoulaUSA