Natural and synthetic substances used as chemical additives to improve water effectiveness for extinguishing wildfires.
The use of extinguishment agents in direct and indirect fire-fighting operations started in the early 1930s because these substances delay the ignition, reduce fire intensity (from flaming to smouldering combustion) and spread, decrease fuel consumption, and delay combustion recovery (Kalabokidis 2000; Giménez et al. 2004). The extinguishment agents help to control wood pyrolysis and combustion through several mechanisms (Liodakis et al. 2008): (a) acting as fire-fuel barriers; (b) cooling fuels by the endothermic decomposition of the added chemicals; (c) diluting with noncombustible gases the combustible gases evolved from burning fuels; (d) trapping free radicals; (e) increasing char...
- Angeler DG, Sanchez B, Garcia G, Moreno JM (2006) Community ecotoxicology: Invertebrate emergence from Fire Trol 934 contaminated vernal pool and salt marsh sediments under contrasting photoperiod and temperature regimes. Aquat Toxicol 78(2):167–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.02.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fernández-Fernández M, Gómez-Rey MX, González-Prieto SJ (2015) Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10years. Sci Total Environ 515-516:92–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kalabokidis K (2000) Effects of wildfire-suppression chemicals on people and the environment: a review. Global Nest Int J 2:129–137Google Scholar
- Kawano T, Otsuka K, Kadono T, Inokuchi R, Ishizaki Y, Dewancker B, Uezu K (2014) Eco-toxicological evaluation of fire-fighting foams in small-sized aquatic and semi-aquatic biotopes. Adv Mater Res 875-877:699–707. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.875-877.699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Koufopoulou S, Michalopoulos C, Tzamtzis N, Pappa A (2014) Impact of a long term fire retardant (Fire Trol 931) on the leaching of Na, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Si from a mediterranean forest soil: a short-term, lab-scale study. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 92(6):708–713. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1266-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mizuki H, Uezu K, Kawano T, Kadono T, Kobayashi M, Hatae S, Oba Y, Iwamoto S, Mitumune S, Nagatomo Y, Owari Y, Umeki H, Ymagaga Y (2007) Novel environmental friendly soap-based fire-fighting agent. J Environ Eng Manag 16:403–408Google Scholar
- Rakowska J, Prochaska K, Twardochleb B, Rojewska M, Porycka B, Jaszkiewicz A (2014) Selection of surfactants as main components of ecological wetting agent for effective extinguishing of forest and peat-bog fires. Chem Pap 68(6):823–833. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11696-013-0511-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar