Archaeology of the Jesuit Missions of Ethiopia

  • Víctor M. FernándezEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_3411-1

Introduction

Catholic Jesuit missionaries, from Portugal, Spain, and Italy, were active in the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia, known then in Europe as the kingdom of Prester John, since 1557 until their expulsion in 1632–1633. They erected their first churches and buildings early during the mission, using local techniques with dry stone, stone and mud, and perishable materials. After 1622, when king Susenyos was converted to the Catholic faith, they began a vast program of architectonic constructions, which reached its apex after the introduction, in 1624, of the lime mortar technique. The many structures made thereafter, with stone and mortar, though most of them heavily ruined, have remained until today.

According to the missionary record, the Jesuits established 19 residences in Ethiopia, although only 14 of them were inhabited for a consistent period of time. In at least ten residences, with the help of foreign and local masons and within a short span of time (1624–1632), they...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Anfray, F. 1980–1981. Vestiges gondariens. Rassegna di Studi Etiopici 28: 5–22.Google Scholar
  2. Anfray, F. 1988. Les monuments gondariens des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles: Une vue d’ensemble. In Proceedings of the eighth international conference of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa 1984, ed. Taddese Beyene, 9–45. Addis Ababa: Institute of Ethiopian Studies.Google Scholar
  3. Caraman, P. 1985. The lost empire. The story of the Jesuits in Ethiopia 1555–1634. London: Sidgwick & Jackson.Google Scholar
  4. Cohen, L. 2009. The missionary strategies of the Jesuits in Ethiopia (1555–1632). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
  5. Fernández, V.M., J. de Torres, A. Martínez d’Alòs-Moner, and C. Cañete. 2017. The archaeology of the Jesuit missions in Ethiopia (1557–1632). Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Martínez d’Alòs-Moner, A. 2015. Envoys of a human God. The Jesuit mission to Christian Ethiopia. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  7. Merid Wolde Aregay. 1998. The legacy of Jesuit missionary activities in Ethiopia from 1555 to 1632. In The missionary factor in Ethiopia. Papers from a symposium on the impact of European missions on Ethiopian society. Lund University, August 1996, ed. Getatchew Hayle, Aasuly Lande, and Samuel Robeson, 31–56. Frankfurt-an-Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  8. Pankhurst, R. 1998. The Ethiopians. A history. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  9. Pennec, H. 2003. Des Jésuites au Royaume du Prêtre Jean (Éthiopie). Stratégies, rencontres et tentatives d’implantation (1495–1633). Paris: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.Google Scholar
  10. Ramos, M.J., Boavida, I. (Eds.). 2004. The indigenous and the foreign in Christian Ethiopian art. On Portuguese-Ethiopian contacts in the 16th–17th centuries. Papers from the fifth international conference on the History of Ethiopian Art (Arrábida, 26–30 Nov 1999). Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  11. RASO. 1903–1917. Rerum Aethiopicarum Scriptores Occidentales Inediti a saeculo XVI ad XIX, ed. Camilo Beccari, 15 vols. Roma: D. de Luigi.Google Scholar
  12. Tsega Michael, Gessesse. 1998. Rapport du travail archéologique sur le site d’Azezo dans la région de Gondar, mai–juin 1998. Addis Abeba: Manuscript at the Centre Français d’études Ethiopiennes. (ref. AO-TSEG-0020et, 15pp., photos, and map).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dpto. Prehistoria, Historia Antigua y ArqueologíaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain

Section editors and affiliations

  • Patricia Fournier
    • 1
  1. 1.Posgrado en ArqueologíaEscuela Nacional de Antropología e HistoriaMéxicoMexico